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Clinton, William Jefferson - 42nd President
20 January 1993 to 20 January 2001

Russell Renka
Southeast Missouri State University

General Sources
    Frontline: the Clinton years PBS is organized around interviews with staffers to create a series of time-sequenced chapters.  There is also a photo gallery; anecdotes; a chronology; and Stories of Bill.
    The New York Times: The Clinton Legacy has an extensive body of stories organized around policy topic and a timeline.
    The Miller Center's American President.org site has American President - Bill Clinton.
    The American Experience The Presidents William J. Clinton PBS has only an Overview and little else.  That's sure to change when PBS makes their American Experience documentary film on Clinton (RDR - February 2004).
    The Internet Public Library POTUS - William J. Clinton has subsections.
    The Clinton Administration presidential materials are housed in NARA's Clinton Presidential Materials Project White House Virtual Library.  Go to its Virtual Library link at Clinton Presidential Materials White House Search Engine for reconstructed snapshots of the five versions of the White House website during the Clinton presidency.
    NARA also maintains Welcome To The White House of Clinton/Gore.  It features retrospective and laudatory files such as The Clinton Presidency Timeline of Major Actions under the title "The Clinton Presidency:  Eight Years of Peace, Progress and Prosperity."  It's a timeline of specific formal accomplishments rather than the full record; health care's failure in 1994, the Republican election victory that year, and the famous budgetary impasse of 1995-96 get no recognition here.   
    The Clinton Presidential Center doesn't have much yet, but there is a photo exhibit at White House Photograph Exhibit.

Archives:  NARA's The Clinton Presidential Materials Project is a searchable library of White House press releases, press conferences, radio addresses, Executive Orders, and photographs from the Clinton Administration.  See also the Clinton-Gore Internet Archives maintained by the Presidency Research Group.  Photographic Portfolios - Contents - Indexes - Presidential Documents Published in the Federal Register has the Public Papers of William J. Clinton for each of the eight presidential years.  The Department of State has History of the Department of State during the Clinton Presidency (1993-2001).  The Clinton Presidential Center under construction in Arkansas will have additional resources once up and fully running.

Retrospectives from Media - Many news organizations have archives on the Clinton presidency.  One of the most interesting is BBC News AMERICAS: The Clinton years, including BBC News AMERICAS The Clinton presidency - in quotes.
    See also About.com http--www.pbs.org-wgbh-pages-frontline-shows-clinton-.
    Frontline:  The Clinton Years PBS includes six chapters, divided logically into the 1992 campaign, the 1992-93 transition, the 1993-94 "promise and defeat," 1995-96 confrontations with the Republican Congress, 1997-98 renewal and impeachment, and 1999-2000 "post impeachment."  There are Interviews, a photo gallery, and anecdotes.
    Nightline: The Clinton Years by ABC News' Nightline and PBS's Frontline, was telecast was January 16, 2001.  Excellent detailed background is the New York Times Report entitled "The Clinton Legacy," at Nightline: The Clinton Years -- The New York Times Reports (also in NYT Archive on Dec. 24-28, 2000).   Also see detailed chronology with associated video pieces, at Nightline: The Clinton Years Chronology.  There's even a Quiz.
    The Washingtonpost.com: The Clinton Years has 5 parts to the series.  CNN has In-Depth Specials - The Clinton Years.  See also The Atlantic Feb 2001:  Bill Clinton and His Consequences.
    TIME Newsfile Bill Clinton has Time covers on Clinton, articles, and links.

Historical Documents, 1990sUnited States History Index:  1990-2000 has "The Administration of William Clinton 1993-2000."  Some links are dated or obsolete, but others such as Documents Relating to the Foreign Policy of the Clinton Administration are current and valuable.  Following this heading are listings by the year of major events during the Clinton presidency through 1999.   Quality is uneven:  some links are valuable, some are not.

Campaign of 1992:  Critical review of press coverage of the Clinton/Bush/Perot campaign is at Task Force on Television and the Campaign of 1992 sponsored by The Century Foundation (formerly the Twentieth Century Fund).

1992 and 1996 Presidential Elections:  Dave Leip's 1992 Election Results showed that a white Southern Democrat could still compete with the Republicans in the southern states--in this case producing a victory for the modestly known longtime Arkansas governor.  The 1996 Election Results were a major comeback from the dismal fortunes of the Democrats in the sweeping 1994 congressional midterm, which saw the first Republican House of Representatives majority since 1955.

Photographic History of Clinton Administration: No comprehensive site is found yet.  Compilations from specific events and sources are plentiful via specific search protocols.

First-year prospects of Clinton:  A collection of good articles from The American Prospect in 1993 is located at Can Clinton Govern? Richard E. Neustadt, Walter Dean Burnham, Walter F. Mondale, James MacGregor Burns, Richard M. Valelly, Jim Wright; all authors are shown. (In general, this journal is a fruitful locale for Clinton articles.  A recent search using "Clinton presidency" turned up 718 articles.  RDR, 6/19/03)

Financial and Trade Policy:  In Conversation with Laura D'Andrea Tyson - p. 6 of 8, one of Clinton's leading economic advisors lauds the early Clinton decisions in this realm.  The later Asian financial crisis is addressed by her at Conversation with Laura D'Andrea Tyson - p. 7 of 8.

Health Policy failure:  One of the major failed domestic policy initiatives in the entire modern presidency, see National Health Security Plan Table of Contents on the ill-fated plan submitted to the 103rd Congress in 1993-94.  Also Health Care and Social Security from The National Center for Public Policy Research summarizes post-plan proposals, none of which have produced a comprehensive result to date.

Interviews:  Jim Lehrer of PBS interviewed President Clinton on 11 August 2000 per Debating Our Destiny: President Bill Clinton.

Opinion Polls and Presidential Approval ratings:  PollingReport.com's The Clinton Presidency has compilations from at least 12 major poll sources under four subheadings:  Clinton Job Ratings, Clinton Favorability (aimed more at personal as opposed to job evaluations), Clinton Scandals and Investigations (a hefty category in this instance!), and Clinton & History.

    An excellent general source of web polls for the Clinton period is THE PEOPLE THE PRESS HOME PAGE by The Pew Research Center For The People & The Press. 

Pardons:  See Presidential Pardons from JURIST:  The Legal Education Network, has comprehensive coverage of the controversial Clinton pardons and of their background.  See also "Pardons" under "Specific Topics" above.

Personal Biographies:  Fewer are yet available online than for other presidents, but see Encyclopedia Americana Bill Clinton essay by Mark J. Rozell of Catholic University.  There is also the brief, official White House offering at William J. Clinton.

Foreign Policy with Clinton:

    Timeline:  Clinton Presidency 1993-2000 is predominantly oriented to important foreign policy events during this time.

    Documents:  See H-Net's Diplomatic History site for Documents Relating to the Foreign Policy of the Clinton Administration; very extensive and well chronicled.

    Post-Cold War Foreign Policy:  See Documents Relating to the Foreign Policy of the Clinton Administration from H-Net's Diplomatic History site.  Strategic Defense Initiative still moved along during this period, as shown from Federation of American Scientists site at Official Documents on Special Weapons and Ballistic Missile Defenses under subheading "Clinton Administration Documents."

    China:  See US Department of State - Home Page with links to President Clinton's China policy via China Home Page.  New York University's Global Beat - China Handbook - Rough Waters Navigating the US-China Security Agenda A Handbook for Journalists - June 1998 addresses Clinton-era security policy.

    North Korea 99-10-12 report on North Korea is described as:  Review of United States Policy Toward North Korea: Findings and Recommendations; Unclassified Report by Dr. William J. Perry, U.S. North Korea Policy Coordinator and Special Advisor to the President and the Secretary of State.

  Use of Force Abroad:  A central contention of presidential resistance to the War Powers Act is that use of force abroad has always been regularly conducted by presidents without advance approval of Congress.  See Use of U.S. Forces Abroad by Ellen C. Collier, Congressional Research Service for a cataloguing of instances through mid-1993.

  Foreign Intelligence policy: See Federation of American Scientists site Project on Government Secrecy - Clinton Administration Documents.  See also H-Net's Diplomatic History, Documents Relating to the Intelligence Community and Information Warfare for numerous links.  The CIA's many difficulties in post-Cold War setting are documented in Ending the CIA's Cold War Legacy, by Melvin A. Goodman in Foreign Policy, March 1997; and  The Road to Intelligence Reform by Mel Goodman.

    Peacekeeping:  Both Bush and Clinton had difficulty fashioning a post-Cold War peacekeeping role for the U.S.  Somalia in 1992-1993 met with failure:  see Frontline: Ambush in Mogadishu from PBS.  Military experience of the Rangers is www.public.usit.net - Somalia Deployment (BROKEN LINK) with background details via links.
    The single major realm of peacekeeping activity with Clinton came in Bosnia and Kosovo; see The Avalon Project United Nations Security Council Resolution 1160; March 31 1998 and CNN In-Depth Specials - Focus on Kosovo.

    Nuclear Security (at Los Alamos) and ChinaThe Cox Report with preface and general contents is authored by the House Select Committee on Intelligence chaired by Rep. Chris Cox (R-Ca.).

Judicial Nominations:  The realm of partisan combat extended considerably during the Clinton Administration to cover all federal judicial appointments.  As a result, extended judicial vacancies became commonplace.  The Constitution Project's Courts Initiative -- Main Page defines the problem.  This bipartisan group is devoted to maintaining the traditional independence of the judiciary from direct partisan combat.  Its Task Force Reports of the Constitution Project's Courts Initiative provides the case.
    For evidence of vacancies, Lower Federal Court Confirmation Database (BROKEN LINK) compiled by Wendy L. Martinek is available on SPSS.  The Senate Judiciary Committee has archived information (This is the Status of Nominations  - Statistics Page) for the 106th Congress (1999-2000) and for the 105th Congress (1997-98).  Current information is at Status of Nominations.  Corroboration is provided in the federal Court System's own data via Judicial Emergencies (currently updated through 5 August 2002; see also their Revised Definition for Judicial Emergencies).
    The Brennan Center for Justice - Resources has an October 1999 article on the Senate's policy since 1995 of systematically delaying or denying hearings on numerous Clinton judicial nominees.  They claim shortages produced judicial emergencies on six of the 13 federal Circuit Courts of Appeal.

Oklahoma City Bombing:  See CNN - Oklahoma City tragedy.

Space Policy:  See Civil Space and Military Space from John Pike's Federation of American Scientists site.

House Impeachment and Senate TrialC-SPAN: Investigation of the President is probably the most thorough on the congressional side of things, and its timeline is effective for use with other searches.  Also see Government Documents in the News--Impeachment of William Jefferson Clinton.  Included are historical precedents on Andrew Jackson, Andrew Johnson and Richard Nixon.   For serious students of the whole impeachment and censure topic, consult Impeachment and Censure Materials Online - JURIST The Law Professors' Network for its vast Guide to Impeachment and Censure Materials Online; a nicely done section is included on Senate censure.  Research Guide on Impeachment from the Library of Congress has historic background on the Andrew Johnson impeachment and trial, and a  bibliography on Internet resources on impeachment.  A good brief synopsis on impeachment is from Michael Nelson's The Presidency A to Z (published by Congressional Quarterly) at books.cq.com.  Another good locale on President Clinton in 1998-1999 is The Independent Counsel and Impeachment Information at UNT and on the Internet.
    An impeachment events chronicle compiled by the House Judiciary Committee is at Independent Counsel Referral.  The December 1998 impeachment floor votes (nos. 543 to 547)  in the House of Representatives are at U.S. House of Representatives Roll Call Votes.  The Senate Procedures and Guidelines for Impeachment Trials is at frwebgate.access.gpo.gov.

Whitewater InquiryFrontline: once upon a time in arkansas addresses background of the land dealings in Arkansas.  The inquiry and official report from Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr contains both the Whitewater findings and the Lewinsky affair.  Official report from the Independent Counsel (House Document 105-310) is at United States Congress.

Survival and LegacySpeakout.com:  A useful site with contemporary treatment of impeachment, et al.  There are many links to news articles and legal briefs.

Major Speeches:   Note:  Clinton records are recent enough that the major speech archive is at general source information sites shown above at the start of the Clinton subfile.  Listed below are some independent, additional speech sources.  RDR, 10/1/2003
    USA Index Bill Clinton has text files of the six State of the Union addresses.  Those of 1994 and 1995 show in both prepared and delivered versions--an interesting enterprise for a President known for ad-libbed speech changes.  It also has the 1993 and 1997 Inaugural Addresses.  Washington Post.com - The State of the Union, 1993-2000 has all eight of them, together with a nice topical file allowing one to compare what's said on the same subject in successive years.  C-SPAN has all eight in both text and video form, at http://www.c-span.org/executive/stateoftheunion.asp.
    The americanpresidency.org Audio-Video Archive - William J. Clinton has 19 excerpts.
    The History Place lists just two Clinton presidential speeches, both from the sorry spectacles of 1998:   Bill Clinton speech:  I Have Sinned, and Bill Clinton speech:  I am profoundly sorry.  Both are in text and RealAudio.
    Office of the President - Speeches from NARA has seven speech links in text form.
   
Rhetoric of Bill Clinton:  A bibliography of sources on President Clinton's rhetoric is at Professor Loudon's nice Wake Forest site, The Rhetoric of William Clinton.

Op-Ed pieces on Bill Clinton:  See Turn Left-President Clinton for largely favorable viewpoints.  For unfavorable ones, look at about 1500 different sites.  An example is some revisionist history at Arkansas Connections: A Time-line of the Clinton Years by Sam Smith; or try The Unofficial Bill Clinton Page.

Person of the Year:  Time Magazine followed a common custom of awarding a President-elect, via William Jefferson Clinton - 1992.  A troubled incumbent facing impeachment by year's end also shared the "honors" in Bill Clinton and Kenneth Starr - 1998 with one of his chief antagonists.

Executive Orders and Proclamations:  See Federal Register - Executive Orders - William J. Clinton.

Book bibliographies on Bill Clinton:  On Clinton's political and character background, see David Maraniss' WashingtonPost.com 'First in His Class' Excerpts.  Not available on-line but especially worthy of note is Stanley A. Renshon's High Hopes:  The Clinton Presidency and the Politics of Ambition at #31 on the Cafe list.

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Copyrightę2004-2007, Russell D. Renka