Database of Historical Congressional Statistics

Principal Investigators

Elaine K. Swift

Robert G. Brookshire

David T. Canon

Evelyn C. Fink

John R. Hibbing

Brian D. Humes

Michael J. Malbin

Kenneth C. Martis

 

March 2001

Inter-university Consortium for

Political and Social Research

P.O. Box 1248

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106

 

BIBLIOGRAPHIC CITATION

Publications based on ICPSR data collections should acknowledge those sources by means of bibliographic citations. To ensure that such source attributions are captured for social science bibliographic utilities, citations must appear in footnotes or in the reference section of publications. The bibliographic citation for this data collection is:

Elaine K. Swift, Robert G. Brookshire, David T. Canon, Evelyn C. Fink, John R. Hibbing, Brian D. Humes, Michael J. Malbin and Kenneth C. Martis. DATABASE OF CONGRESSIONAL HISTORICAL STATISTICS [Computer file]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 2000.

REQUEST FOR INFORMATION ON USE OF ICPSR RESOURCES

To provide funding agencies with essential information about use of archival resources and to facilitate the exchange of information about ICPSR participants' research activities, users of ICPSR data are requested to send to ICPSR bibliographic citations for each completed manuscript or thesis abstract. Please indicate in a cover letter which data were used.

DATA DISCLAIMER

The original collector of the data, ICPSR, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for uses of this collection or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This project was truly the work of dozens of dedicated researchers and students. We would like to thank our board members, who gave us much advice and encouragement over the years: David W. Brady (Stanford University), Joseph Cooper (Johns Hopkins University), Michael Mezey DePaul University), Nelson W. Polsby (University of California at Berkeley), the late H. Douglas Price (Harvard University), David Rohde (Michigan State University), Joel Silbey (Cornell University), and Barbara Sinclair (University of California at Los Angeles).

We would also like to thank Thomas Skladony, who had the idea that formed the basis of the project; National Science Foundation staff Jim Campbell (now at SDUNY-Buffalo), Frank Scioli, and Rick Wilson (now back at Rice University).

Special thanks also go to Garrison Nelson of the University of Vermont and Charles Stewart III of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who compiled the House and Senate standing committee data set. Research assistance on compiling the data for the select committees was provided by Greg Flemming, Brian Kroeger, and Robert Turner.

Our thanks to the following graduate students and former graduate students from the University at Albany, State University of New York, whose work contributed substantially to the Presidential Proposal and Votes-on-Proposals database files: Victoria Farrar-Myers, Troy Smith, Leah Murray, Timothy Gordinier, Christopher Grill, Nicholas Jenny,  Krista Ketterer, Michael Korzi, Christopher Latimer, Sean Reed, and Richard Sauerzopf. 

We also received significant assistance from Andrew Rudalevidge, a Ph.D. student from Harvard University, who error checked the files from Truman through Bush and produced a read-me text file (appended to but not incorporated in the database) for requests during President Clinton's first four years in office.

Evelyn Fink and Brian Humes would like to thank the following graduate students:  Jessica Olson, Christine Pappas, Steve Showalter, Linda Swanson, and Cameron Thies.

David Canon would like to thank John Fieno.

 

Table of Contents

Table of Contents *

Introduction *

Study Description *

Data About Members of Congress *

The Member Table *

The Serves Table *

The Party Table *

Data About Congressional Committees *

The Committee Table *

Data About Congressional Elections *

The Election Table *

Data About Roll Call Votes *

The Rollcall Table *

The Issue Table *

The Rctext Table *

The Votes Table *

Data About Presidential Requests *

The Request Table *

The Rollreq Table *

Codebook Description *

Table and Field Name List *

Committee Table *

Election Table *

Issue Table *

Member Table *

Party Table *

The Rctext Table *

The Request Table *

The Rollcall Table *

The Rollreq Table *

The Serves Table *

The Votes Table *

Codebook *

Data About Members of Congress *

The Member Table *

The Serves Table *

The Party Table *

Data About Congressional Committees *

The Committee Table *

Data About Congressional Elections *

The Election Table *

Data About Roll Call Votes *

The Rollcall Table *

The Issue Table *

The RCText Table *

The Votes Table *

Data About Presidential Requests *

The Request Table *

The Rollreq Table *

References *

 

Introduction

Study Description

This Oracle database is composed of twelve tables that contain fields describing characteristics of members of congress and their activities from the first through the hundredth congresses, 1789 to 1989. Some tables contain records for additional congresses. The rows in the various tables describe different entities. For example, in the Votes table, each row contains a record of a vote by a particular member on a particular roll call vote. The Member table contains a record for each member of congress, while the Serves table contains a record for each member for every congress in which he or she served. See the descriptions of each table for details about its contents. The data from the various tables can be combined by matching the fields that they have in common. Support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation under grants SES 9309877, SES 93-10057, SES 9223337, SBR-93-18537, SES 9223337, SES 9308683, SES 9319225, SES-9109335, SBR 9496324 and SBR-9310112.

 

Data About Members of Congress

The Member Table

The original source of the biographical data contained in the Member table was the ICPSRís Roster of United States Congressional Officeholders and Biographical Characteristics of Members of the United States Congress, 1789-1993: Merged Data (ICPSR 7803). John R. Hibbing edited these data for inclusion in this database. There is a row in the table for each member of congress from the 1st to the 103rd congress. There are 11,364 rows in this table. Data in this table include such items as the name, sex, place and date of birth, college attended, and other biographical facts.

The Serves Table

The data in this table were taken from the Roster of United States Congressional Officeholders and Biographical Characteristics of Members of the United States Congress, 1789-1993: Merged Data (ICPSR 7803) as edited by John R. Hibbing for inclusion in this database. Each row represents the service of one member in one congress. Data include what state and district the member represented, the memberís dates of service in this congress, and other facts. There are data from the 1st to the 103rd congresses. This table contains 42,304 rows.

The Party Table

The data in the Party table were compiled by David T. Canon based on The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress: 1789-1989 (New York: Macmillan, 1989) by Kenneth C. Martis. There is a row in this table for each member of congress for each congress in which he or she served. There are records from the 1st to the 101st congresses. The data consist of identifying information for each member and the memberís party affiliation. For each member about whom authorities disagree on assigning the party affiliation, more than one code is given. There are 40,942 rows in this table.

Data About Congressional Committees

The Committee Table

The Committee table contains data describing the service of each member of Congress on congressional committees. The data in this table were compiled by David T. Canon based on data originally collected by Garrison Nelson. Each row of the table represents an instance of a single member serving on a single committee in a single congress. The data include the name of the member, an identifier for the committee, and the dates between which the member served on the committee. There are 116,962 rows in this table, and include records through the 102nd congress.

Data About Congressional Elections

The Election Table

The data in the Election table were compiled from United States Historical Election Returns, 1824-1968 (ICPSR 0001) as updated by David T. Canon. There is a row for each candidate in each election for the house and senate from the 19th to the 104th congress. There are 94,640 rows. The rows contain data such as the candidatesí name, the states and districts in which they were running, vote totals and vote percentages.

Data About Roll Call Votes

The Rollcall Table

These data are taken from United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1987: Reformatted Data (ICPSR 9822). This table contains an entry for every roll call vote taken in congress from the 1st through the 100th congresses. The data include a short description of the roll call, the number of yea and nay votes, the date of the roll call, and the sponsorís name. There are 77,927 rows in this table.

The Issue Table

The data in the Issues table were originally compiled by Howard L. Rosenthal and Keith T. Poole, and were based on United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1987: Reformatted Data (ICPSR 9822) as expanded and updated by Rosenthal and Poole. There is a row in the table for each roll call vote taken in each chamber from the 1st through the 100th congress. The political issues that this roll call vote concerns are coded in each row. Codings by Peltzman (1984), Clausen (1983) and Poole and Rosenthal are included. There are 77,928 rows in this table.

The Rctext Table

In the original codebooks for the United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1987: Reformatted Data (ICPSR 9822), there are one or more lines of text describing each roll call. This table contains those lines of text and identifying information for each roll call. There are 281,566 rows in this table describing 77,926 roll call votes taken from the 1st to 100th congresses.

The Votes Table

These data are taken from United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1987: Reformatted Data (ICPSR 9822). Each row represents a single vote by a single member on a single roll call. The data include an identifier for the member, an identifier for the roll call, and a code for the vote cast by the member. There are 16,021,696 rows in this table.

Data About Presidential Requests

The Request Table

Michael J. Malbin collected the data in the Request table for inclusion in this database. Each row in this table represents a request by a president for action by congress. The data include the date of the request, a description of the request, and a citation to the document containing the request. There are 12,500 rows in the table.

The Rollreq Table

These data were compiled by Michael J. Malbin. This table links the presidential requests described in the Request table with the roll call votes in the Rollcall table. Data in this table include identifiers which link to the appropriate roll call and request in the other tables, and information on the presidentís position, whether his position was supported by the roll call, and the type of vote. This table contains 6,932 rows and contains data from the 1st to the 101st congresses.

Also included is a text file, REQESTS.TXT. For Washington through Truman, this file contains direct quotations to support the short description of the request in the Request table. For Eisenhower through Bush, quotations are generally not given. Occasional editor's notes, including references to similar, but not identical requests, may be present. These are neither systematic nor exhaustive. Occasional editor's notes may also be found for Presidents before Eisenhower. All editor's note are enclosed in square brackets.

Codebook Description

This codebook follows the format shown in the entry below. Each field is followed by a notation of the type of data (number or character). If the data are character (i.e., text), the length of the field is given. This is followed by a description of the contents of the field. For coded numeric data, the meanings of the codes are provided.

Example:

LAST_JUDICIAL_OFFICE NUMBER

Last judicial office held prior to service in Congress.

00 No judicial office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 State

02 County

03 Federal District Court

04 Municipal

05 Customs Court

06 Tax Court and Court of Military Appeals

07 Claims Court

08 United States Supreme Court

09 United States Circuit

-1 MD: missing data

 

Table and Field Name List

Committee Table

CONGRESS

CONGRESS_SESSION

MEMBER_ID

COMMITTEE

CHAMBER

PARTY

TYPE

NAME

PARTY_STATUS

RANK

MONTH_APPOINT

DAY_APPOINT

YEAR_APPOINT

MONTH_TERM

DAY_TERM

YEAR_TERM

Election Table

CAND_ID

STATE

YEAR

OFFICE

DISTRICT

ELECTYPE

VOTE

PARTY

CONGRESS

TOTAL

CANDS

PERCENT1

PERCENT2

MARGIN

CANDPCT

PCTDIFF

OUTCOME

INCUMB

NAME

Issue Table

CONGRESS

ROLLCALL

CHAMBER

CLAUSEN

PELTZ1

PELTZ2

ISSUE1

ISSUE2

Member Table

MEMBER_ID

FULL_NAME

SEX

ICPSR_STATE_BORN

BORN_AND_REP_SAME_STATE

BORN_AND_REP_SAME_REGION

ICPSR_RELATIVES_CODE

COLLAPSED_RELATIVES

SECONDARY_EDUCATION

COLLEGE_ATTENDED

COLLAPSED_COLLEGE

MILITARY_SERVICE

COLLAPSED_MILITARY

LAST_OCCUPATION

COLLAPSED_LAST_OCCUPATION

LAST_NONJ_MUN_OFFICE

COLLAPSED_LAST_NONJ_MUN_OFF

ANY_MUNICIPAL_OFFICE_PRE

LAST_NONJ_CNTY_OFFICE

COLLAPSED_LAST_NONJ_CNTY_OFF

ANY_COUNTY_OFFICE_PRE

ANY_LOCAL_OFFICE_PRE

LAST_NONJ_STATE_OFFICE

COLLAPSED_LAST_NONJ_STATE_OFF

ANY_STATE_OFFICE_PRE

LAST_NONJ_FEDERAL_OFFICE

COLLAPSED_LAST_NONJ_FED_OFF

ANY_FEDERAL_OFFICE_PRE

LAST_JUDICIAL_OFFICE

COLLAPSED_LAST_JUDICIAL_OFF

PRIOR_5LEVELS_OF_GOVERNMENT

PRIOR_3LEVELS_OF_GOVERNMENT

SEQUENCE_OF_CONG_SERVICE

AGE_FIRST_ENTERED_CONGRESS

FIRST_CONGRESS_ELECTED

YEAR_FIRST_ELECTED_CONGRESS

YEAR_LAST_SERVED_CONGRESS

TOTAL_YEARS_SERVED_CONGRESS

WHY_LEFT_CONGRESS

FIRST_HOUSE_SERVED

YEAR_FIRST_ELECTED_HOUSE

YEAR_LAST_SERVED_HOUSE

TOTAL_YEARS_SERVED_HOUSE

WHY_LEFT_HOUSE

TOTAL_YRS_HOUSE_PRE_SENATE

FIRST_SENATE_SERVED

YEAR_FIRST_ELECTED_SENATE

YEAR_LAST_SERVED_SENATE

TOTAL_YEARS_SERVED_SENATE

WHY_LEFT_SENATE

FIRST_OCCUPATION_POST

FIRST_NONJ_MUN_OFF_POST

COLLAPSED_FIRST_NONJ_MUN_OFF

ANY_MUN_OFFICE_POST

FIRST_NONJ_CNTY_OFF_POST

COLLAPSED_FIRST_NONJ_CNTY_OFF

ANY_COUNTY_OFFICE_POST

ANY_LOCAL_OFFICE_POST

FIRST_NONJ_STATE_OFF_POST

COLLAPSED_FIRST_NONJ_STATE_OFF

ANY_STATE_OFFICE_POST

FIRST_NONJ_FED_OFFICE_POST

COLLAPSED_FIRST_NONJ_FED_OFF

ANY_FEDERAL_OFFICE_POST

FIRST_JUDICIAL_OFFICE_POST

COLLAPSED_FIRST_JUDICIAL_OFF

POST_5LEVELS_OF_GOVERNMENT

POST_3LEVELS_OF_GOVERNMENT

Party Table

STALPHA

STATE

MCNAME

BIOGDIR

GUIDE

CONGRESS

DIST

PARTY

BELL

DAUER

HOADLEY

HENDERSN

FIRSTFED

CUNNINGH

LONGPTY

NILES

HICKEY

NIELSEN

GLOBE

LYNN

LINDEEN

HATZENBU

MCLAUGHL

BOWLING

LAMPI

PRESVOTE

KYGAZETT

MATTHIAS

GUIDEOPP

CONGDIR

WORLD

TRIBUNE

SPEAKER

BIOD1911

ICPSR2

CONGLOBE

INTELLIG

MCPHERS

BLAINE

BENEDICT

CURRY

LEXGAZZ

RICHWHIG

SMITH

MEMBER_ID

GUIDECLS

GIUNTA

RYAN

SWANSTRM

PHNXGAZ

SILBEY

BOGUE

BIOD1913

STEGMAIR

The Rctext Table

ROLLCALL

LINENUM

CHAMBER

CONGRESS

CONGRESS_SESSION

SEQNUM

ROLL_CALL_TEXT

The Request Table

REQUEST_NUMBER

PRESIDENT

DATE

DESCRIPTION

REPEAT_REQUEST

MESSAGE

CITATION

The Rollcall Table

ROLLCALL

CITATION

BILLNO

ROLL_CALL_DATE

CHAMBER

CONGRESS

CONGRESS_SESSION

SEQNUM

YEAVOTES

NAYVOTES

SPNAME

ICPNUM

The Rollreq Table

CHAMBER

CONGRESS

PRES_POS

SUPPORTED

VOTETYPE

REQUEST_NUMBER

ROLLCALL

The Serves Table

MEMBER_ID

CONGRESS

CHAMBER_CLASS

ICPSR_STATE

DISTRICT

ICPSR_PARTY

MCKIBBIN_PARTY

REGION

ATTAIN_OFFICE

OCCUPANCY

TERMINATION_OF_SERVICE

FIRST_HOUSE_2ND_CNTG_SVC

FIRST_SENATE_2ND_CNTG_SVC

TERMS_SEATED_IN_HOUSE

TERMS_SEATED_IN_SENATE

WHY_LEFT_THIS_CONGRESS

MONTH_ENTERED

DAY_ENTERED

YEAR_ENTERED

MONTH_LEFT

DAY_LEFT

YEAR_LEFT

STATE

PARTY

TENURE_THIS_CONGRESS

BEG_CUM_HOUSE_SERVICE

BEG_CUM_SENATE_SERVICE

BEG_CUM_CONGRESS_SERVICE

END_CUM_HOUSE_SERVICE

END_CUM_SENATE_SERVICE

END_CUM_CONGRESS_SERVICE

NUMBER_OF_TERMS_IN_HOUSE

NUMBER_OF_TERMS_IN_SENATE

AGE_BEGINNING_THIS_CONGRESS

The Votes Table

CONGRESS

CHAMBER_CLASS

MEMBER_ID

ROLLCALL

VOTE

Codebook

Data About Members of Congress

The Member Table

This table contains data about members of Congress that does not change from congress to congress.

MEMBER_ID NUMBER

The ICPSR assigned Members 5-digit codes in alphabetical order from the 1961 edition of the Biographical Directory. These ran from 00001 to 10471. Members sworn after 1961 were numbered alphabetically within each of the successive Congresses to which they were originally elected. Replacement Members are numbered in chronological order.

FULL_NAME CHARACTER(25)

Member's full name: last, first, middle. If a member's name does not fill 25 columns, blanks are used in the remaining spaces. This variable is taken from ICPSR 7803, "Roster of United States Congressional Officeholders and Biographical Characteristics of Members of the United States Congress," as revised by John Hibbing. This variable serves as the standard name variable in the dataset. While there are other variables that contain members' names, they differ in format and may not be consistent with each other.

SEX NUMBER

Sex of Member:

1 Male

2 Female

9 MD: missing data

 

ICPSR_STATE_BORN NUMBER

The state in which the member was born. Codes follow those of the state field in the Election table (above) with the following exception:

00 Unknown or Born in a Foreign Country

 

BORN_AND_REP_SAME_STATE NUMBER

Born in and represented the same state. This variable indicates whether the member represented his/her state of birth.

0 Represented State in Which Born

1 Did Not Represent State in Which Born

9 MD: missing data

 

BORN_AND_REP_SAME_REGION NUMBER

Born in and represented the same region. This variable indicates whether the member represented his/her region of birth.

0. Represented Region in Which Born

1. Did Not Represent Region in Which Born

9. MD: missing data

 

ICPSR_RELATIVES_CODE NUMBER

Relationship of individual to others who have served in Congress. The code refers to the first relative mentioned in the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989, only. For example, a member who was the daughter of a member would be coded '02' here.

00 None Mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Father/Mother

02 Son/Daughter

03 Grandfather

04 Grandson/Granddaughter

05 Uncle

06 Nephew/Niece

07 Brother/Sister

08 Cousin

09 Husband

10 Wife or Widow

11 Father-in-law

12 Son-in-law

13 Great-grandfather

14 Great-grandson

15 Great-uncle

16 Great-nephew

17 Brother-in-law/Sister-in-law

18 Second cousin

21 Stepfather

22 Stepson/Stepdaughter

23 Great-great-grandfather

24 Great-great-grandson

25 Great-great-uncle

26 Great-great-nephew

27 Stepbrother/Stepsister or Halfbrother/Halfsister

34 Great-great-great-grandson

-1 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_RELATIVES NUMBER

This is a collapsed version of the variable ICPSR_RELATIVES_CODE.

0 The member had no relatives who served in Congress, according to the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 The member had at least one relative who served in Congress.

9 MD: missing data

 

SECONDARY_EDUCATION NUMBER

Record of receiving at least some secondary education. If there is no mention of such schooling, the code value '0' applies, and if there is mention of the member receiving a secondary education but not specifically from a private school, the code value '1' applies.

0 Unknown

1 Public Schools, or type of secondary education not specified

2 Private Schools, including parochial

9 MD: missing data

 

COLLEGE_ATTENDED NUMBER

College attended. Only the last college or university attended was coded. A foreign college is coded only if there was no attendance at a college in the United States. A value of '0' in the last digit indicates attendance at a state university. A value of '9' in the last digit indicates attendance at a college other than a state university. Codes for specific schools follow:

000 No college attended or none mentioned

009 Foreign college (no American college attended)

110 Connecticut State Universities

111 Yale

119 Connecticut Colleges

120 Maine State Universities

129 Maine Colleges

130 Massachusetts State Universities

131 Harvard

139 Massachusetts Colleges

140 New Hampshire State Universities

142 Dartmouth

149 New Hampshire Colleges

150 Rhode Island State Universities

151 Brown

159 Rhode Island Colleges

160 Vermont State Universities

169 Vermont Colleges

220 New Jersey State Universities

221 Princeton

222 Rutgers

229 New Jersey Colleges

250 New York State Universities

251 Columbia

252 Cornell

253 West Point

259 New York Colleges

270 Pennsylvania State Universities

271 Pennsylvania University

279 Pennsylvania Colleges

310 Delaware State Universities

319 Delaware Colleges

320 Maryland State Universities

329 Maryland Colleges

330 District of Columbia Universities

331 George Washington University

332 Georgetown University

339 District of Columbia Colleges

340 Virginia State Universities

341 Richmond University

349 Virginia Colleges

350 West Virginia State Universities

359 West Virginia Colleges

360 North Carolina State Universities

369 North Carolina Colleges

370 South Carolina State Universities

379 South Carolina Colleges

380 Georgia State Universities

389 Georgia Colleges

390 Florida State Universities

399 Florida Colleges

410 Illinois State Universities

411 Chicago University

412 Northwestern University

419 Illinois Colleges

420 Michigan State Universities

429 Michigan Colleges

430 Ohio State Universities

439 Ohio Colleges

440 Wisconsin State Universities

449 Wisconsin Colleges

450 Indiana State Universities

451 Notre Dame

459 Indiana Colleges

510 Iowa State Universities

512 Iowa State University

519 Iowa Colleges

520 Kansas State Universities

529 Kansas Colleges

530 Minnesota State Universities

539 Minnesota Colleges

540 Missouri State Universities

549 Missouri Colleges

550 Nebraska State Universities

559 Nebraska Colleges

560 North Dakota State Universities

569 North Dakota Colleges

570 South Dakota State Universities

579 South Dakota Colleges

610 Kentucky State Universities

619 Kentucky Colleges

620 Tennessee State Universities

621 Vanderbilt

629 Tennessee Colleges

630 Alabama State Universities

639 Alabama Colleges

640 Mississippi State Universities

649 Mississippi Colleges

710 Arkansas State Universities

719 Arkansas Colleges

720 Louisiana State Universities

729 Louisiana Colleges

730 Oklahoma State Universities

739 Oklahoma Colleges

740 Texas State Universities

749 Texas Colleges

810 Montana State Universities

819 Montana Colleges

820 Idaho State Universities

829 Idaho Colleges

830 Wyoming State Universities

839 Wyoming Colleges

840 Colorado State Universities

849 Colorado Colleges

850 New Mexico Universities

859 New Mexico Colleges

860 Arizona State Universities

869 Arizona Colleges

870 Utah State Universities

879 Utah Colleges

880 Nevada State Universities

889 Nevada Colleges

910 California State Universities

911 Stanford

912 California Institute of Technology

919 California Colleges

920 Oregon State Universities

929 Oregon Colleges

930 Washington State Universities

939 Washington Colleges

940 Alaska State Universities

949 Alaska Colleges

950 Hawaii State Universities

959 Hawaii Colleges

-1 MD: missing data

COLLAPSED_COLLEGE NUMBER

Collapsed version of college attended. This variable is a collapsed version of the variable COLLEGE_ATTENDED.

0 No college attended or none mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Attended a state university

2 Attended an Ivy League school (Yale, Harvard, Brown, Columbia, Princeton, Pennsylvania, Dartmouth, Cornell, Rutgers, West Point)

3 Attended other colleges and universities

9 MD: missing data

 

MILITARY_SERVICE NUMBER

Military service. The highest rank prior to congressional service is coded. An individual who was known to be an officer is coded here as '2' when no more specific information is available. If a Member had some military service but with no rank specified, this variable is coded '1'. The Navy equivalent to an Army rank is listed second.

0 No military service mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Enlisted rank, non-officer or rank unspecified

2 Lieutenant/Ensign, or officer with rank unspecified

3 Captain/Lieutenant

4 Major/Lieutenant Commander

5 Lieutenant Colonel/Commander

6 Colonel/Captain

7 General/Admiral

9 MD: Missing data

 

COLLAPSED_MILITARY NUMBER

This variable is a collapsed version of the variable MILITARY SERVICE.

0 No military service was mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Enlisted rank, non-officer or rank unspecified

2 Officer

9 MD: missing data

 

LAST_OCCUPATION NUMBER

Last major occupation prior to service in Congress, according to the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989 (1989).

00 None mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Retired

02 Secondary School Teacher

03 High School Administrator

04 College Administrator

05 College Professor

10 Lawyer

11 Doctor/Dentist/Veterinarian

12 Journalist/Publisher

13 Minister/Priest

14 Architect/Urban Planner

15 Librarian

16 Accountant/Economist

17 Engineer

18 Social Worker

19 Mortician

20 Actor

21 Professional Athlete

30 Soldier

31 Surveyor

40 Radio and Television

41 Public Relations/Lobbyist

42 Advertising

43 Salaried Political Party Officer

50 Business (Transportation)

51 Business (Investments)

52 Business (Contractor)

53 Business (Manufacturer)

54 Business (Agriculture/Farming)

55 Business (Banking)

56 Business (Retailing)

57 Business (Mining/Petroleum)

58 Business (Real Estate)

59 Business (Insurance)

60 Business (Unspecified)

62 Charity Organizer

69 Tailor

70 Laborer

71 Union Officer

72 Slave

80 Author

90 Hospital Administrator

91 Educational Administrator

92 Public School Guidance Counselor

93 Association Director

94 Political Consultant/Researcher

95 Pharmacist

-1 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_LAST_OCCUPATION NUMBER

Collapsed version of last occupation prior to service. This is a collapsed version of the variable LAST_OCCUPATION.

0 None mentioned in the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Education (includes codes 02-05,91-92 from variable LAST_OCCUPATION)

2 Lawyer (includes code 10 from variable LAST_OCCUPATION)

3 Professional (includes codes 11-19 from variable LAST_OCCUPATION)

4 Business (includes codes 50-53,55-60 from variable LAST_OCCUPATION)

5 Agriculture (includes code 54 from variable LAST_OCCUPATION)

6 Miscellaneous (includes codes 20-43, 62-90, 93-95 from variable LAST_OCCUPATION)

9 MD: missing data

 

LAST_NONJ_MUN_OFFICE NUMBER

Last municipal office held prior to service in Congress.

00 None mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 City Treasurer

02 City Council

03 Mayor

04 School Commissioner/School Board

05 Commissioner

06 City Clerk

07 Town Supervisor

93 Board Member/Selectman/Alderman

94 Civil Servant

95 Assessor

96 Justice of the Peace

97 City Attorney

-1 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_LAST_NONJ_MUN_OFF NUMBER

Collapsed version of last municipal office prior to service. The only judicial office included in this variable is justice of the peace. This is a collapsed version of the variable LAST_NONJ_MUN_OFFICE.

0 No service in a municipal office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Some municipal office was held

9 MD: missing data

 

ANY_MUNICIPAL_OFFICE_PRE NUMBER

Any municipal office held prior to service in Congress.

0 No service in a municipal office was mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Some service in a municipal office, including municipal judgeship (coded '4' on variable LAST_NONJ_MUN_OFFICE).

9 MD: missing data

 

LAST_NONJ_CNTY_OFFICE NUMBER

Last non-judicial county office held prior to service in Congress.

00 None mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 County Attorney, Prosecuting Attorney

02 Clerk

03 Sheriff

04 Commissioner

05 Register of Deeds

06 Assessor

07 Auditor

08 Treasurer

09 Surveyor

10 Coroner

11 Superintendent of Schools

12 Probation Officer

13 Public Administrator

14 County Supervisor

15 County Legislator

16 County Comptroller

94 Board Member

95 Civil Servant

96 Surrogate

97 Probate Officer

98 Jail Inspector

-1 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_LAST_NONJ_CNTY_OFF NUMBER

Collapsed version of the variable LAST_NONJ_CNTY_OFFICE.

0 No service in a county office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States, 1774-1989

1 Some county office was held

9 MD: missing data

 

ANY_COUNTY_OFFICE_PRE NUMBER

Service in any county office held prior to service in Congress.

0 No service in a county office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States, 1774-1989

1 Some county office was held, including county judgeship (coded '2' on variable LAST JUDCL OFC PRE-CONG)

9 MD: missing data

 

ANY_LOCAL_OFFICE_PRE NUMBER

Service in any local office held prior to service in Congress. A code value of '1' denotes any service, including judicial, on the municipal or county level.

0 No service in a local office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Any local office

9 MD: missing data

 

LAST_NONJ_STATE_OFFICE NUMBER

Last non-judicial state office held prior to service.

00 No such service mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

02 Representative (House)

03 Senator

04 Governor

05 Secretary of State, Assistant Secretary of State

06 Auditor

07 Lieutenant Governor

08 Treasurer

09 Attorney General, Assistant Attorney General

10 Comptroller

11 Court Reporter

12 Hearing Examiner

13 Secretary of Labor and Industry

84 Commissioner

85 Governor's Staff

86 Council Member

87 Civil Servant

88 Board Member

89 Legislative Clerk

90 Commissioner

91 Court Reporter

92 State Superintendent of Schools

93 Commissioner

94 University Regent or Trustee

95 Warden

96 District Attorney

98 Adjutant General

-1 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_LAST_NONJ_STATE_OFF NUMBER

Collapsed version of last non-judicial state office prior to service in the Congress. This variable is the collapsed version of the variable LAST_NONJ_STATE_OFFICE.

0 No state office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Some state office held

9 MD: missing data

 

ANY_STATE_OFFICE_PRE NUMBER

Any state office held prior to service in Congress.

0 No state office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Any state office, including state judgeship (Coded '1' on the variable LAST JUDCL OFC PRE-CONG)

9 MD: missing data

 

LAST_NONJ_FEDERAL_OFFICE NUMBER

Last non-judicial federal office held prior to service.

00 None mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 City commandant

02 Food administrator

03 President

04 Member of Continental Congress (includes elected, but not sworn in)

05 Vice president

06 Territorial delegate

07 Federal staff (non-civil service)

08 Delegate to international assemblies

65 Senate clerk

69 Diplomatic service except secretary of state, ambassador, consul, and delegate to international assemblies

70 Cabinet member advisor

71 Treasurer, asst. treasurer

72 Territorial governor, cabinet member or civil servant (includes Canal Zone)

73 Marshall, asst. marshall

74 Member, director or president of council, board or commission

75 Congressional staff

76 Customs agent

77 Comptroller

78 Civil servant

79 Administrator, deputy administrator

80 Court clerk

81 Commissioner

82 Consul

83 Indian agent

84 Cabinet member

85 U.S. attorney

87 Appraiser

88 Tax collector

89 Postmaster

90 Presidential advisor

91 Minister

92 House clerk

93 Pension agent

94 Ambassador

95 Land registrar

96 Warden

97 Post collector

98 Assistant secretary, acting secretary

-1 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_LAST_NONJ_FED_OFF NUMBER

Collapsed version of last non-judicial federal office held.

0 No federal office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Some federal office held

9 MD: missing data

 

ANY_FEDERAL_OFFICE_PRE NUMBER

Federal office held prior to service in Congress.

0 No federal office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Any federal office held, including federal judgeships (Coded '3', 5-9 on the variable LAST JUDCL OFC PRE-CONG)

9 MD: missing data

 

LAST_JUDICIAL_OFFICE NUMBER

Last judicial office held prior to service in Congress.

00 No judicial office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 State

02 County

03 Federal District Court

04 Municipal

05 Customs Court

06 Tax Court and Court of Military Appeals

07 Claims Court

08 United States Supreme Court

09 United States Circuit

-1 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_LAST_JUDICIAL_OFF NUMBER

Collapsed version of last judicial office held prior to service.

0 No judicial office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

1 Some judicial office held

9 MD: missing data

 

PRIOR_5LEVELS_OF_GOVERNMENT NUMBER

Number of levels of government served in prior to service in Congress--five possible levels. A member received a score of one if that individual served at the municipal level, at the county level, at the state level, at the federal level or in the judiciary. The highest possible code is five. Note that judicial offices are a separate level and are not included in the municipal, county, state, or federal categories. This variable is obtained by counting the appropriate code values in the variables LST N-J MUN PRE-CN CLLPS, LST N-J CTY PRE-CN CLLPS, LST N-J STA PRE-CN CLLPS, LST N-J FED PRE-CN CLLPS, and LST JUD PRE-CN CLLPS.

0 None

1 One

2 Two

3 Three

4 Four

5 Five

9 MD: missing data

 

PRIOR_3LEVELS_OF_GOVERNMENT NUMBER

Number of levels of government served in prior to service in Congress--three possible levels. A member received a score of one if that individual served at the local level, at the state level or at the federal level prior to any service in Congress. The highest possible score is three. Note that judicial offices are included in the local, state, and federal categories. This variable is obtained by counting the code values in variables ANY LOCAL OFC PRE-CONG, ANY STA PRE-CN CLLPS, and ANY FED PRE-CN CLLPS.

0 None

1 One

2 Two

3 Three

9 MD: missing data

 

SEQUENCE_OF_CONG_SERVICE NUMBER

Sequence of congressional offices held. Only the first occurrence of service in a chamber is taken into account by this variable. For example, a member who served first in the House, next in the Senate, and then again in the House would be coded 3 and not 4.

1 Served in House only

2 Served in Senate only

3 Served first in House, then Senate

4 Served first in Senate, then House

9 MD: missing data

 

AGE_FIRST_ENTERED_CONGRESS NUMBER

Age when first entered Congress. This is a two-digit variable that specifies the age of the individual at the time of first entry into Congress. (Date sworn in, not date elected.)

00 Unknown

-1 MD: missing data

 

FIRST_CONGRESS_ELECTED NUMBER

Congress to which first elected or appointed. The actual Congress number is coded here.

-1 MD: missing data

 

YEAR_FIRST_ELECTED_CONGRESS NUMBER

Year first elected to Congress. This is a three-digit variable that gives the year first elected to Congress. The leading '1' has been deleted from the date. The assumption was made that all Congresses were elected in the even numbered year preceding their assembly.

For example, a member first elected to the 100th Congress--1/3/87 - 1/3/89-- would be coded '986' since that was the year of election. Replacements would be coded for their first year of election as well.

-1 MD: missing data

 

YEAR_LAST_SERVED_CONGRESS NUMBER

Last full year of service in Congress. This is a three-digit variable that specifies the last year a member served in Congress. The value is the last three digits of the year, the leading '1' being deleted (i.e., '879' for 1879). For members who leave Congress after completing the term, the value for this variable is the year prior to that in which the Congress ended. For members who leave Congress midterm (i.e., without completing the term), the value is the year in which the member left Congress. If a member retires, for example, at the end of a Congress (1/3/91), the member's record (and all previous records) would be coded '990.' If a member leaves midterm (5/24/89), the member's records would be coded '989.'

999 Inapplicable: active member still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

TOTAL_YEARS_SERVED_CONGRESS NUMBER

Total number of years served in Congress. This variable documents, for inactive members, the total number of years actually served in Congress. If service was interrupted, the inactive year(s) between active periods are not counted. All fractions are rounded up to the next year.

99 Inapplicable: active member still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

WHY_LEFT_CONGRESS NUMBER

Reason for leaving Congress for the last time.

00 Unknown

01 Either defeated in a general election, unseated, lost a contested election, or had an election declared void

02 Was not renominated or lost in the primary

03 Died in office

04 Either did not seek reelection, retired, or not a candidate for renomination

05 Sought other elective office

06 Accepted federal office

08 Either resigned, withdrew, or was expelled

09 Inapplicable

-1 MD: missing data

 

FIRST_HOUSE_SERVED NUMBER

First House in which member served. This variable records the number of the Congress (83rd Congress, 84th Congress, etc.) in which the members' first service in the House of Representatives occurred.

000 Inapplicable: member has not served in the House of Representatives

-1 MD: missing data

 

YEAR_FIRST_ELECTED_HOUSE NUMBER

Year elected to House for the first time. This is a three-digit variable that gives the year first elected to the House. The leading '1' has been deleted from the date. The assumption was made that all Houses were elected in the even numbered year preceding their assembly. For example, a member first elected to the 100th House--1/3/87 - 1/3/89--would be coded '986' since that was the year of the election. Replacements would be coded for their first year of election as well.

000 Inapplicable: member has not served in the House of Representatives

-1 MD: missing data

 

YEAR_LAST_SERVED_HOUSE NUMBER

Last full year of service in House of Representatives. This three-digit variable specifies the last year a member served in the House of Representatives. The value given for this variable is the last three digits of the year (i.e., '897' for '1897').

For members who leave Congress after completing the term, the value for this variable is the year prior to that in which the Congress ended. For members who leave Congress midterm (i.e., without completing the term), the value is the year in which the member left Congress. If a member retires, for example, at the end of a Congress (1/3/91), the member's record (and all previous records) would be coded '990.' If a member leaves midterm (5/24/89), the member's records would be coded '989.'

998 Inapplicable: has not served in the House

999 Inapplicable: still serving in the House

-1 MD: missing data

 

TOTAL_YEARS_SERVED_HOUSE NUMBER

Total number of years served in the House of Representatives. This variable takes into account all years of House service (includes non-contiguous service) for members who are no longer active in the House. All fractions are rounded up to the next full year.

00 Has not served in the House

99 Inapplicable: still serving in the House

-1 MD: missing data

 

WHY_LEFT_HOUSE NUMBER

Reason for leaving the House for the last time.

00 Inapplicable: the member served only in the Senate

01 Either defeated in a general election, unseated, losing a contested election, or having an election declared void

02 Was not renominated or lost in the primary

03 Died in office

04 Either did not seek reelection, retired, or not a candidate for renomination

05 Sought other elective office

06 Accepted federal office

07 Elected or appointed to Senate

08 Either resigned, withdrew, or was expelled

09 Still serving in House

10 Due to illness, seat declared vacant

-1 MD: missing data

 

TOTAL_YRS_HOUSE_PRE_SENATE NUMBER

Total years served in the House prior to entering Senate. This variable is a two-digit code for senators who had House service prior to their entering the Senate. For a member who served first in the House, next in the Senate, and then again in the House, only the years of House service before entering the Senate were coded. All fractions are rounded up to the next full year.

00 Senators with no House service or inactive representatives with no Senate service

99 Inapplicable: active representative still serving in the House

-1 MD: missing data

 

FIRST_SENATE_SERVED NUMBER

First Senate in which member served. This variable records the number of the Congress in which the member's first service in the Senate occurred, up to and including the Congress of record.

000 Inapplicable: member has not served in the Senate

-1 MD: missing data

 

YEAR_FIRST_ELECTED_SENATE NUMBER

Year first elected to the Senate. This is a three-digit variable that gives the year first elected to Senate. The leading '1' has been deleted from the date. The assumption was made that all Senates were elected in the even numbered year preceding their assembly. For example, a member first elected to the 100th Senate--1/3/87 - 1/3/89--would be coded '986' since that was the year of election. Replacements would be coded for their first year of election as well.

000 Inapplicable: member has not served in the Senate

-1 MD: Missing data

 

YEAR_LAST_SERVED_SENATE NUMBER

Last full year of service in the Senate. This is a three-digit variable that indicates the last year a member served in the Senate. The last three digits of the year are coded (i.e., '897' for '1897'). For members who leave Congress after completing the term, the value for this variable is the year prior to that in which the Congress of record ended. For members who leave Congress midterm (i.e., without completing the term), the value is the year in which the member left Congress. If a member retires, for example, at the end of a Congress (1/3/91), the member's record (and all previous records) would be coded '990.' If a member leaves midterm (5/24/89), the member's records would be coded '989.'

998 Inapplicable: member has not served in the Senate

999 Inapplicable: member is still serving in the Senate

-1 MD: missing data

 

TOTAL_YEARS_SERVED_SENATE NUMBER

Total number of years served in the Senate. This variable takes into account all years of Senate service (includes non-contiguous service) for members who are no longer active in the Senate. All fractions are rounded up to the next full year.

00 Member has not served in the Senate

99 Inapplicable: member is still serving in the Senate

-1 MD: missing data

 

WHY_LEFT_SENATE NUMBER

Reason for leaving the Senate for the last time.

00 Inapplicable: unknown or served only in the House

01 Either defeated in a general election, unseated, losing a contested election, or having an election declared void

02 Was not renominated or lost in the primary

03 Died in office

04 Either did not seek reelection, retired, or not a candidate for renomination

05 Sought other elective office

06 Accepted federal office

07 Elected to the House

08 Either resigned, withdrew, or was expelled

09 Still serving in Senate

-1 MD: missing data

 

FIRST_OCCUPATION_POST NUMBER

First major non-public service occupation subsequent to service in Congress.

00 None mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Retired

02 Secondary school teacher

03 High school administrator

04 College administrator

05 College professor

10 Lawyer

11 Doctor/dentist/veterinarian

12 Journalist/publisher

13 Minister/priest

14 Architect/urban planner

15 Librarian

16 Accountant/economist

17 Engineer

18 Social worker

19 Mortician

20 Actor

21 Professional athlete

30 Soldier

31 Surveyor

40 Radio and television

41 Public relations, lobbyist

43 Salaried political party officer

50 Business (transportation)

51 Business (investments)

52 Business (contractor)

53 Business (manufacturer)

54 Business (agriculture/farming)

55 Business (banking)

56 Business (retailing)

57 Business (mining/petroleum)

58 Business (real estate)

59 Business (insurance)

60 Business (unspecified)

62 Charity organizer

69 Tailor

70 Laborer

71 Union officer

72 Slave

80 Author

90 Hospital administrator

98 Died in office

99 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

FIRST_NONJ_MUN_OFF_POST NUMBER

First municipal office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 None mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 City treasurer

02 City council

03 Mayor

04 School commissioner/school board

05 Commissioner

06 City clerk

07 Borough president

93 Board member or selectman

94 Civil servant

95 Assessor

96 Justice of the peace

97 City attorney

99 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_FIRST_NONJ_MUN_OFF NUMBER

Collapsed version of first municipal office subsequent to Congress.

00 No service in a municipal office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Some municipal office was held

02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

ANY_MUN_OFFICE_POST NUMBER

Any municipal office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 No service in a municipal office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Some service in a municipal office, including municipal judgeship

02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

FIRST_NONJ_CNTY_OFF_POST NUMBER

First non-judicial county office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 None mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 County attorney, prosecuting attorney

02 Clerk

03 Sheriff

04 Commissioner

05 Register of deeds

06 Assessor

07 Auditor

08 Treasurer

09 Surveyor

10 Coroner

11 Superintendent of schools

12 Probation officer

13 Public administrator

94 Board member

95 Civil servant

96 Surrogate

97 Probation officer

98 Jail inspector

99 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_FIRST_NONJ_CNTY_OFF NUMBER

Collapsed version of first non-judicial county subsequent to service in Congress.

00 No service in a county office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Some county office was held

02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

ANY_COUNTY_OFFICE_POST NUMBER

Any county office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 No service in a county office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Some county office was held, including county judgeship

02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

ANY_LOCAL_OFFICE_POST NUMBER

Any local office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 No service in a local office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Any local office

02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

FIRST_NONJ_STATE_OFF_POST NUMBER

First non-judicial state office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 No such service mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

02 Representative (House)

03 Senator

04 Governor

05 Secretary of state

06 Auditor

07 Lt. Governor

08 Treasurer

09 Attorney general, assistant attorney general

10 Comptroller

11 Court reporter

12 Hearing examiner

84 Commissioner

85 Governor's staff

86 Council member

87 Civil servant

88 Board member

89 Legislative clerk

90 Commissioner

91 Court reporter

92 State superintendent of schools

93 Commissioner

94 University regent or trustee

95 Warden

96 District attorney

98 Adjutant general

99 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

COLLAPSED_FIRST_NONJ_STATE_OFF NUMBER

Collapsed version for first non-judicial state office subsequent to service in Congress.

00 No service in a state office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Some state office held.

02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-01 MD: missing data

 

ANY_STATE_OFFICE_POST NUMBER

Any state office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 No service in a state office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Any state office, including state judgeship (coded '1' on the variable LAST JUDCL OFC PRE-CONG).

02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-01 MD: missing data

 

FIRST_NONJ_FED_OFFICE_POST NUMBER

First non-judicial federal office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 None mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 City commandant

02 Food administrator

03 President

05 Vice president

06 Territorial delegate

07 Federal staff (non-civil service)

08 Delegate to international assemblies

70 Cabinet member advisor

75 Congressional staff

76 Customs agent

77 Comptroller

78 Civil servant

79 Administrator

80 Court clerk

81 Commissioner

82 Consul

83 Indian agent

84 Cabinet member

85 U.S. attorney

86 Commissioner

87 Appraiser

88 Tax Collector

89 Postmaster

90 Presidential advisor

91 Minister

92 House clerk

93 Pension agent

94 Ambassador

95 Land registrar

96 Warden

97 Post collector

98 Assistant secretary, acting secretary

99 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_FIRST_NONJ_FED_OFF NUMBER

Collapsed version of first federal office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 No federal office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Some federal office held

02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

ANY_FEDERAL_OFFICE_POST NUMBER

Any federal office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 No federal office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Any federal office held, including federal judgeships (coded 3, 5-9 in the variable FIRST_JUDICIAL_OFFICE_POST)

02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

FIRST_JUDICIAL_OFFICE_POST NUMBER

First judicial office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 None mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 State

02 County

03 Federal District Court

04 Municipal

05 Customs Court

06 Tax Court and Court of Military Appeals

07 Claims Court

08 United States Supreme Court

09 United States Circuit Court

99 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-01 MD: missing data

 

COLLAPSED_FIRST_JUDICIAL_OFF NUMBER

Collapsed version of first judicial office held subsequent to service in Congress.

00 No judicial office mentioned in Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989

01 Some judicial office held

02 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-01 MD: missing data

 

POST_5LEVELS_OF_GOVERNMENT NUMBER

Number of levels of government served in, subsequent to service in Congress-five possible levels. There are five possible levels: municipal, county, state, federal, and judicial. Note that judicial offices are considered a separate level and are not included in the municipal, county, state, or federal categories. This variable is obtained by counting the appropriate code values in variables FIRST_NONJ_MUN_OFF_POST, FIRST_NONJ_CNTY_OFF_POST, FIRST_NONJ_STATE_OFF_POST, COLLAPSED_FIRST_NONJ_FED_OFF, and COLLAPSED_FIRST_JUDICIAL_OFF.

00 None

01 One

02 Two

03 Three

04 Four

05 Five

06 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

POST_3LEVELS_OF_GOVERNMENT NUMBER

Number of levels of government served in, subsequent to service in Congress- three possible levels: local, state, and federal. Note that judicial offices are included in the local, state, and federal categories. This variable is obtained by counting the code values in variables ANY_LOCAL_OFFICE_POST, ANY_STATE_OFFICE_POST, and ANY_FEDERAL_OFFICE_POST.

00 None

01 One

02 Two

03 Three

04 Inapplicable: still serving in Congress

-1 MD: missing data

 

The Serves Table

MEMBER_ID NUMBER

ICPSR identification number for each member. The same as the MEMBER_ID in the Member table.

 

CONGRESS NUMBER

Congress Number. The sequential number of the Congress of Record in which the member was seated.

-1 MD: missing data

 

CHAMBER_CLASS NUMBER

Chamber and Class in Which Member Served in Congress of Record. See Congressional Quarterly's Guide to Congress, 4th ed. (1991), p. 76, for a brief explanation of the development of Senate classes.

3. House of Representatives

4. Senate, Class 1. The following 33 states with Class 1 seats elected Senators in any or all of the years 1788, 1790, 1796, 1802, 1808, 1814, 1820, 1826, 1832, 1838, 1844, 1850, 1856, 1862, 1868, 1874, 1880, 1886, 1892, 1898, 1904, 1910, 1916, 1922, 1928, 1934, 1940, 1946, 1952, 1958, 1964, 1970, 1976, 1982, 1988, 1994, 2000.

Arizona Minnesota Pennsylvania

California Mississippi Rhode Island

Connecticut Missouri Tennessee

Delaware Montana Texas

Florida Nebraska Utah

Hawaii Nevada Vermont

Indiana New Jersey Virginia

Maine New Mexico Washington

Maryland New York West Virginia

Massachusetts North Dakota Wisconsin

Michigan Ohio Wyoming

5. Senate, Class 2. The following 33 states with Class 2 seats elected Senators in any or all of the years 1788, 1792, 1798, 1804, 1810, 1816, 1822, 1828, 1834, 1840, 1846, 1852, 1858, 1864, 1870, 1876, 1882, 1888, 1894, 1900, 1906, 1912, 1918, 1924, 1930, 1936, 1942, 1948, 1954, 1960, 1966, 1972, 1978, 1984, 1990, 1996, 2002.

Alabama Louisiana North Carolina

Alaska Maine Oklahoma

Arkansas Massachusetts Oregon

Colorado Michigan Rhode Island

Delaware Minnesota South Carolina

Georgia Mississippi South Dakota

Idaho Montana Tennessee

Illinois Nebraska Texas

Iowa New Hampshire Virginia

Kansas New Jersey West Virginia

Kentucky New Mexico Wyoming

6. Senate, Class 3. The following 34 states with Class 3 seats elected Senators in any or all of the years 1788, 1794, 1800, 1806, 1812, 1818, 1824, 1830, 1836, 1842, 1848, 1854, 1860, 1866, 1872, 1878, 1884, 1890, 1896, 1902, 1908, 1914, 1920, 1926, 1932, 1938, 1944, 1950, 1956, 1962, 1968, 1974, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1998.

Alabama Indiana Ohio

Alaska Iowa Oklahoma

Arizona Kansas Oregon

Arkansas Kentucky Pennsylvania

California Louisiana South Carolina

Colorado Maryland South Dakota

Connecticut Missouri Utah

Florida Nevada Vermont

Georgia New Hampshire Washington

Hawaii New York Wisconsin

Idaho North Carolina

Illinois North Dakota

ICPSR_STATE NUMBER

ICPSR abbreviations for states represented by members of Congress in a given year. See the STATE field in the Election table for the codes.

ng data

DISTRICT NUMBER

District represented by the member in Congress. This variable includes codes for standard single member districts, at-large districts, and districts in which the Representative was elected on a general ticket. The district number itself is used as the value given here for single member districts as well as any so-called "plural districts". The practice of electing several representatives from the same district disappeared by about 1830 and was limited to Kentucky, Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania. These plural districts are not distinguished by a special code but they can be identified by the presence of several Representatives, all regularly elected, who have the same district number.

The code values for the single member and plural districts range from 1 to 49, inclusive.

Districts in which the Representative was elected on a general ticket are coded in the range 50 through 70, inclusive. In some states, Representatives were elected at-large (on a general ticket) but did represent specific districts. A Representative elected on a general ticket to represent district 1 would be coded 51 here.

At-large districts within a state are coded in descending order beginning with the value 98 according to the alphabetical order of the candidates' last names. Hence, Anderson would be coded as 98, Brown as 97, Carlson as 96, and so on.

01--49 Single Member and Plural Districts

50--70 Representatives Elected on a General Ticket

88 Representatives Elected From At-Large Districts

98 At Large

99 Unknown or Not Ascertained

-1 missing data or inapplicable because member a Senator

 

ICPSR_PARTY NUMBER

Political party with which member was affiliated during Congress of record. This four digit numeric code corresponds to the system used in the ICPSR Collection of Historical Election Returns, 1788-1968.

0001 Federalist

0008 Anti-Democrat

0009 Jefferson Republican

0010 Anti-Federalist

0011 Jefferson Democrat

0012 Old Republican

0013 Democrat-Republican

0014 Clinton Democrat

0020 Adams Republican

0021 Adams Anti-Democrat

0022 Adams Democrat

0023 Adams Supporter

0024 John Quincy Adams Democrat

0025 National Republican

0026 Anti-Masonic

0027 Anti-Masonic Whig

0028 Clay Democrat

0029 Whig

0030 Henry Clay Whig

0031 High Tariff Whig

0032 Harrison Whig

0033 Whig and Anti-Masonic

0034 Whig and Democrat

0035 Law and Order Whig

0036 Old Line Whig

0037 Constitutional Union

0038 Liberation Whig

0040 Anti-Democrat and States Rights

0041 Anti-Jackson Democrat

0042 Calhoun Democrat

0043 Calhoun Nullifer

0044 Nullifer

0045 Nullifer Democrat

0046 States Rights Democrat

0047 States Rights Free Trader

0048 States Rights Whig

0049 Tyler Democrat

0100 Democrat

0101 Jackson Democrat

0102 Jackson Free Statesmen

0103 Democrat and Anti-Mason

0104 Van Buren Democrat

0105 Conservative Democrat

0106 Anti-Nebraska Democrat

0107 Douglas Democrat

0108 Anti-Lecompton Democrat

0109 Missouri Compromise Democrat

0110 Popular Sovereignty Democrat

0111 Anti-Broderick Democrat

0112 Conservative

0113 Fusion Democrat

0114 Readjuster

0115 Tammany Democrat

0116 Anti-Tammany Democrat

0117 Protection-Tariff Democrat

0118 Tariff-For-Revenue Democrat

0119 United Democrat

0120 Liberal Democrat

0200 Republican

0201 Radical Republican

0202 Union Conservative

0203 Unconditional Union

0204 Union Whig

0205 Union War Candidate

0206 Unionist

0207 States Rights War Democrat

0208 Liberal Republican

0209 Liberal Republican and Democrat

0210 Republican and Union Labor

0211 Protectionist

0212 United Republican

0213 Progressive Republican

0214 Republican and Non-Partisan

0215 War Democrat

0300 Free Soil

0301 Free Soil Democrat

0302 Free Soil Whig

0303 Whig and Free Soiler

0304 Anti-Slavery

0305 Anti-Slavery Whig

0306 Free-Soil Temperance and Know-Nothing(American)

0307 Ultra-Abolitionist

0308 Free Soil American and Democrat

0310 American

0311 American and Republican

0312 National American

0313 Native American Democrat

0314 Democrat and American

0315 Whig and American

0320 Greenback

0321 Greenback Democrat

0322 Greenback and Democrat

0323 Greenback Labor Reform

0324 Democrat and Greenback

0325 Democrat and Greenback Labor

0326 National Greenback

0327 National Greenback and Democrat

0328 Independent

0329 Independent and Democrat

0330 Independent Democrat

0331 Independent Republican

0332 Independent Radical

0333 Independent Republican and Democrat

0334 National and Democrat

0335 National Anti-Monopolist

0336 Anti-Monopolist

0337 Anti-Monopolist Democrat

0338 Republican Greenback

0339 Democrat and Liberal

0340 Populist

0341 People's

0342 People's and Democrat

0343 Populist and Democrat

0344 Populist, Democrat, and People's

0345 Populist and Silver Democrat

0346 Democrat and Populist

0347 Democrat, People's and Prohibitionists

0348 Farmers' Alliance

0349 Farmers' Alliance and Prohibitionists

0351 Alliance Democrat

0352 Free Silver Republican

0353 Independent Silver Republican

0354 Silver Republican

0355 Union Laborite

0356 Union Labor and Democrat

0357 Non-Partisan League

0360 Democrat and Prohibition

0361 Prohibition

0362 Prohibition and Democrat

0370 Progressive

0380 Socialist

0400 Feliciana Republican

0401 Fusionist

0402 Liberal

0403 Law and Order

0404 Radical

0500 Prohibition, Democrat-Republican and Progressive

0501 Labor

0505 Socialist Labor

0515 Democrat and Labor

0522 American Labor

0528 Union Democrat

0537 Farmer Labor

0567 Democrat and Citizen

0659 Opposition Republican

0749 Republican-Democrat

0809 Democrat, Farmer-Labor

0908 Non-Partisan

1010 Northern Democrat

1116 Conservative Republican

1160 Silver-Republican-Democrat

9000 Party Identification Unknown

9998 Party Identification Unknown

9999 Unknown

-001 MD: missing data

 

MCKIBBIN_PARTY NUMBER

A two digit code, corresponding to the system used by Carroll McKibbin in "Biographical Characteristics of Members of the United States Congress" (ICPSR 7428). The party affiliation held the longest is the one coded for members associated with more than one political party. Code 07, Independent, includes both those for whom no party affiliation is mentioned in the Biographical Directory of the American Congress (1961 ed.) and those who were elected as Independents.

01. Democrat

02. Republican

03. Whig

04. Federalist

05. Anti-Monopolist

06. American

07. Independent

08. Free Soil

09. Populist

10. Farm Labor

11. Conservative

12. Greenback

13. Socialist

14. Liberal

15. Anti-Mason

17. Union Labor

18. Progressive

REGION NUMBER

The ICPSR code for the geographic region of the country in which the member's state is found.

0 New England

1 Middle Atlantic

2 East North Central

3 West North Centra

4 South

5 Border

6 Mountain

7 Pacific

8 External

9 MD: missing data

 

ATTAIN_OFFICE NUMBER

Most recent means of attaining congressional office.

1 Regularly elected in a general election. This category includes senators elected since the passage of the 17th amendment, and all regularly elected House members, including those who won contested elections.

2 Elected in a special election, i.e., a replacement. Senators who were specially elected as replacements in the first or second Congress of a 6-year term, are coded '2' for the rest of the Congresses in the term.

3 Elected by state legislature. This category includes all senators elected before the 17th amendment took effect (1914), including replacement senators, except those appointed by the governor.

5. Appointed by governor to fill vacancy (applicable only to senators).

9. MD: missing data

 

OCCUPANCY NUMBER

Occupancy in Congress of record. To reconstruct a Congress as it was first configured and to exclude replacement members, use this variable as a filter, including only those members coded 0,1,6,7 or 9 -- first or only occupant of the seat during the Congress.

00 Only occupant of the seat during the Congress. Members elected (or appointed) as replacements are also coded 0 if the originally elected member was not seated in the Congress of record, i.e., died or resigned between election day and the day Congress assembled. Members who died or resigned and were not replaced were coded '0.'

01 First occupant of the seat. If a representative or senator was seated in the Congress and subsequently died, resigned or lost a contested election and was replaced, he/she was assigned code value '1.'

02 Second occupant of the seat in the Congress

03 Third occupant of the seat in the Congress

04 Fourth occupant of the seat in the Congress

05 Elected but not seated, including those replacements who were not sworn in before Congress adjourned, and those who died or resigned before Congress assembled

MEMBERS SEATED TWICE IN THE SAME CONGRESS

06 Only occupant of the same seat during the Congress

07 First and subsequent occupant of the same seat during the Congress

08 Second and subsequent occupant of the same seat during the Congress

09 First occupant of the seat; subsequent occupant of a different seat during the Congress

10 Second occupant of the seat; subsequent occupant of a different seat during the Congress

11 Member continued as occupant of the seat during the Congress, but with different political party affiliation.

12 Member continued as third occupant of a different seat in the same chamber

99 MD: missing data

 

TERMINATION_OF_SERVICE NUMBER

Termination of service. This variable documents for the Congress of record, 1st-102nd Congresses, whether the member was elected to/served in the next or in subsequent Congresses or, for the 103rd Congress, whether the member was still serving in the 103rd.

To access only the final record for a member, use this variable as a filter, including only those members coded 5 or 6-- member did not subsequently serve or was still serving in the 103rd Congress.

 

0 Member served in the next Congress in the same chamber.

1 Member's subsequent service was in the same chamber but not in the Congress following the Congress of record.

2 Member served in the next Congress but in the other chamber.

3 Member's subsequent service was in the other chamber but not in the Congress following the Congress of record.

4 Member's subsequent service was in the same Congress but in the other chamber.

5 Member did not subsequently serve in Congress (as of the 103rd Congress).

6 Member was still serving in the 103rd Congress.

7 Member's subsequent service was in the same chamber in the same Congress but representing a different political party.

8 Subsequent service in same chamber, same Congress but representing a different seat.

9 MD: missing data

 

FIRST_HOUSE_2ND_CNTG_SVC NUMBER

First House in which member served, contiguous to Congress of record. This variable records the Congress number contiguous to the Congress of record in which the member's first service in the House of Representatives occurred up to and including the Congress of record. It is useful for identifying and examining the records of members whose House service has been interrupted.

For example, if a member served in the House in the 34th through 38th Congresses, the member's record for each Congress served in would be coded '34' since service was never interrupted.

If a member served in the 94th and 95th House, had no service in the 96th, and was re-elected to the 97th-99th Houses, s/he would be coded '94' in the 94th-95th records and '97' in the 97th-99th records.

000 Inapplicable because member did not serve in the House of Representatives prior to or including the Congress of record.

-01. MD: missing data

 

FIRST_SENATE_2ND_CNTG_SVC NUMBER

First Senate in which member served, contiguous to Congress of record. This variable records the Congress number contiguous to the Congress of record in which the member's first service in the Senate occurred up to and including the Congress of record. It is useful for identifying and examining the records of members whose Senate service has been interrupted.

For example, if a member served in the Senate in the 34th through 39th Congresses, the member's record for each Congress served in would be coded '34' since service was never interrupted.

If a Member served in the 94th through 96th Senates, was not re-elected to the 97th, and subsequently was elected/appointed to the 100th Senate, s/he would be coded '94' in the 94-96th records and '100' in the 100th and any subsequent records.

000. Inapplicable: member did not serve in the Senate prior to and including the Congress of record.

-01. MD: missing data

TERMS_SEATED_IN_HOUSE NUMBER

Cumulative number of terms served in the House--excluding terms not seated. This variable indicates the number of Houses in which the member served, up to and including this House. A Congress to which a member was elected but not seated is not counted in the total. The prior service variables are current for the House and Senate up to and including the Congress of record. A member's service in a chamber is coded '00' until the Congress in which he/she actually begins serving in that chamber.

00 Member was not seated in or elected to the House prior to or in the Congress of record.

-1 MD: missing data.

 

TERMS_SEATED_IN_SENATE NUMBER

Cumulative number of Senates served--excluding terms not seated, i.e., the number of Senates that the member served, up to and including this Senate. A Congress for which a member was elected but not seated is not counted in the total.

00 Member was not elected and seated in the Senate prior to or in the Congress of record.

-1 MD: missing data.

 

WHY_LEFT_THIS_CONGRESS NUMBER

Why member left Congress of record, either at mid-term or at end of the term, whichever is appropriate.

00 Won reelection or served in next Congress

01 Either defeated in general election, unseated, lost contested election, or election declared void

02 Defeated in primary

03 Died in office

04 Did not seek reelection, retired, or was not a candidate for renomination

05 Sought or accepted other office

06 Accepted federal office

07 Went to Senate

08 Resigned, withdrew, or expelled

09 Inapplicable because still serving in Congress (103rd Congress only)

10 Unknown

11 Changed political party affiliation mid-term

12 Switched to other Senate seat midterm

-1 MD: missing data

 

MONTH_ENTERED NUMBER

Month entered this Congress. A two digit variable representing the month a member's service began in the Congress of record. If the month is unknown, '06' was entered.

01 January

02 February

03 March

04 April

05 May

06 June (or unknown)

07 July

08 August

09 September

10 October

11 November

12 December

-1 MD: missing data

DAY_ENTERED NUMBER

Day entered this Congress. A two-digit variable indicating the day of the month that a member entered the Congress of record. If the exact day is unknown, '15' was entered. The actual date is coded.

01 The first of the month

02 The second of the month

.

.

31 The thirty-first of the month

-1 MD: missing data

 

YEAR_ENTERED NUMBER

Year entered this Congress. A three-digit variable indicating the year a member entered the Congress of record. The year is coded as its last three digits (i.e., '897' for 1897).

-1 MD: missing data

 

MONTH_LEFT NUMBER

Month left this Congress. A two-digit variable indicating the month that a member left the Congress of Record. If the exact month is unknown, '06' was entered. Members still serving in the 103rd Congress are coded '1' in their last record.

01 January

02 February

.

.

12 December

-1 MD: missing data

 

DAY_LEFT NUMBER

Day left this Congress. A two-digit variable indicating the day a member left the Congress of record. If the exact day is unknown, a '15' was entered. Members still serving in the 103rd Congress are coded '3' in their last record.

01 First day of the month

02 Second day of the month

.

.

31 Thirty-first day of the month

-1 MD: missing data

 

YEAR_LEFT NUMBER

Year left this Congress. This three-digit variable indicates the year a member left the Congress of record. The year is coded with the leading '1' omitted. Members still serving in the 103rd Congress are coded '995' in their last record.

-01. MD: missing data

 

STATE CHARACTER (2)

Alphabetic abbreviation for state represented in Congress of record. The same codes are used as STALPHA in the Party table.

 

PARTY CHARACTER (4)

Alphabetic abbreviation for party represented in Congress of record. A four character code that provides an alphabetic abbreviation for those political parties that sent a combined total of at least fifty of their members to Congress during the period 1789-1989. Following are the abbreviations, the party, and in parentheses the ICPSR Party Code from the ICPSR Collection of Historical Election Returns, 1788-1968:

FED Federalist (0001)

AFED Anti-Federalist (0010)

JEFD Jefferson Democrat (0011)

NREP National Republican (0025)

WHIG Whig (0029)

SRD State Rights Democrat (0046)

DEM Democrat (0100)

JACD Jackson Democrat (0101)

REP Republican (0200)

UNIN Unionist (0206)

UREP United Republican (0212)

AMER American (0310)

UKN Unknown (9000)

 

TENURE_THIS_CONGRESS NUMBER

Length of service in this Congress/chamber. This four-digit variable (that includes 3 implied decimal places) documents the length of service in the Congress of record in number and fraction of years. The fractional parts of a year are listed below. A member who served only one year and seven months in a Congress is coded '1583,' for example. A full term is coded '2000.' The first column is for whole numbers; the last three express a fraction. This variable was derived from variables 84, 86, 87, and 89. When only the year a member entered/left a Congress was known, tenure was calculated using June of the year in question as the enter/leave date.

Members still serving in the 103rd Congress are coded as if they have completed their terms in the 103rd Congress. For example, a person entering the 103rd Congress on 1/3/93 is coded 02000 on his/her 103rd record.

 

0001. Less than 1 month

0083. One month

0167. Two months

0250. Three months

0333. Four months

0417. Five months

0500. Six months

0583. Seven months

0667. Eight months

0750. Nine months

0833. Ten months

0917. Eleven months

1000. One year

0000. MD: missing data

 

BEG_CUM_HOUSE_SERVICE NUMBER

Cumulative House service as of beginning of the Congress of record. This five digit field records the total length of service (in years) in the House of Representatives as of the beginning of each Congress. The first two columns are for whole numbers; the last three are implied decimal places. A full Congress is coded '02000'. The fractional parts of a year are listed below.

00000 Did not serve in the House prior to the Congress of record

00001 Less than 1 month

00083 One month

00167 Two months

00250 Three months

00333 Four months

00417 Five months

00500 Six months

00583 Seven months

00667 Eight months

00750 Nine months

00833 Ten months

00917 Eleven months

01000 One year

-1000 MD: missing data

 

BEG_CUM_SENATE_SERVICE NUMBER

Cumulative Senate service as of beginning of Congress of record. This five digit field records the total length of service (in years) in the Senate as of the beginning of each Congress. The first two columns are for whole numbers; the last three are implied decimal places. For example, a member who served one year and seven months in a Congress is coded '01583'; a member who served one term and four months is coded '02333.' The fractional parts of a year are listed below.

00000. Did not serve in the Senate prior to the Congress of record

00001. Less than 1 month

00083. One month

00167. Two months

00250. Three months

00333. Four months

00417. Five months

00500. Six months

00583. Seven months

00667. Eight months

00750. Nine months

00833. Ten months

00917. Eleven months

-1000. MD: missing data

 

BEGIN_CUM_CONGRESS_SERVICE NUMBER

Cumulative congressional service as of the beginning of the Congress of record. This five-digit field documents the length of service (in years) in Congress as of the beginning of each Congress. The first two columns are for whole numbers; the last three are implied decimal places. A member who served for example, five terms and two months is coded '10167.'

00000 Did not serve in Congress prior to the Congress of record

00001 Less than 1 month

00083 One month

00167 Two months

00250 Three months

00333 Four months

00417 Five months

00500 Six months

00583 Seven months

00667 Eight months

00750 Nine months

00833 Ten months

00917 Eleven months

-1000 MD: missing data

 

END_CUM_HOUSE_SERVICE NUMBER

Cumulative House service as of the end of the Congress of record. This variable documents the length of service (in years) in the House at the end of the Congress of record. The first two columns are for whole numbers; the last three are implied decimal places. Representatives still serving in the 103rd Congress are coded as if they have completed their terms in the 103rd Congress (i.e., in their 103rd record, V96 = V93 + V92).

 

00000 Did not serve in House prior to or in the Congress of record

00001 Less than 1 month

00083 One month

00167 Two months

00250 Three months

00333 Four months

00417 Five months

00500 Six months

00583 Seven months

00667 Eight months

00750 Nine months

00833 Ten months

00917 Eleven months

-1000 MD: missing data

 

END_CUM_SENATE_SERVICE NUMBER

Cumulative Senate service as of the end of the Congress of record. This variable documents the length of service (in years) in the Senate at the end of the Congress of record. The first two columns are for whole numbers; the last three are implied decimal places. Senators still serving in the 103rd Congress are coded as if they have completed their terms in the 103rd Congress (i.e., in their 103rd record, V97 = V94 + V92).

 

00000. Did not serve in the Senate prior to or in the Congress of record

00001. Less than 1 month

00083. One month

00167. Two months

00250. Three months

00333. Four months

00417. Five months

00500. Six months

00583. Seven months

00667. Eight months

00750. Nine months

00833. Ten months

00917. Eleven months

-1000. MD: missing data

 

END_CUM_CONGRESS_SERVICE NUMBER

Cumulative congressional service as of end of Congress of record. This variable documents the member's cumulative congressional service (in years) at the end of the Congress of record. The first two columns are for whole numbers; the last three are implied decimal places. Members still serving in the 103rd Congress are coded as if they have completed their terms in the 103rd Congress (i.e., in their 103rd record, V98 = V95 + V92).

00001. Less than 1 month

00083. One month

00167. Two months

00250. Three months

00333. Four months

00417. Five months

00500. Six months

00583. Seven months

00667. Eight months

00750. Nine months

00833. Ten months

00917. Eleven months

-1000. MD: missing data

 

NUMBER_OF_TERMS_IN_HOUSE NUMBER

Cumulative number of terms served in House as of Congress of record. This variable counts all Congresses in which there was service in the House of Representatives, including the Congress of record, even if the member was not seated.

00 Member did not serve in the House prior to or in Congress of record

01 Served once

02 Served twice

.

.

30 Served in thirty Congresses in the House of Representatives

-1 MD: missing data

 

NUMBER_OF_TERMS_IN_SENATE NUMBER

Cumulative number of terms served in Senate as of Congress of record. This variable counts all Congresses in which there was service in the Senate, including the Congress of record, even if the member was not seated.

00 Member did not serve in the Senate prior to or in Congress of record

01 Member served once

02 Member served twice

.

.

30 Served in thirty Congresses in the Senate

-1 MD: missing data

 

AGE_BEGINNING_THIS_CONGRESS NUMBER

Age at beginning of Congress of record. This variable documents a member's age when s/he is sworn into Congress of record.

-1 MD: missing data

 

The Party Table

Preface on party codes: The party codes used generally conform to abbreviations used by Kenneth C. Martis (1989). Following Martis, party codes are provided for each House member for the 1st through the 24th Congresses. For the 25th through 100th Congresses, multiple party codes are provided only for those House members for whom various sources attribute conflicting party affiliations. For information on how these party codes were formulated, see Martis (1989), sections 2 and 3, pp. 4-22. For information on the party codes on individual members, see Martis (1989), parts 3 and 4, pp. 243-496. Martis's party codes for some House members may include some additional information or notes, included as footnotes to the tables, which are not reflected in this database. Dashes or missing entries in the Martis tables are indicated in this file by zeros or missing entries.

These party variables were added to the preexisting database created by Keith T. Poole and Howard L. Rosenthal, ICPSR 9822, "United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1987: Reformatted Data." Several of the variables included in this file (MCNAME, CONGRESS, MEMBER_ID, DIST, and PARTY) are taken from the Poole and Rosenthal database.

Note: The variables BIOGDIR, GUIDE, DAUER, BELL, etc. are sources of party identifications, and are cited in Martis (1989). In this dataset, they only contain values when there was a disagreement with the final determination of party identification in Martis (1989). Abbreviations used for party identifications are listed below.

For an explanation of how Martis arrived at party identifications, and a list of members for whom sources failed to agree on party identifications, see Martis (1989), parts 3 and 4, pp. 243-496.

The following abbreviations are used in this data set:

Abt: Abolitionist

Ad Ad: Adams Bloc Adams

Ad-Clay: Adams-Clay

Ad-Clay F: Adams-Clay Federalist

Ad-Clay R: Adams-Clay Republican

Ad D: Adams Democrat

Ad F: Adams Federalist

Ad Jac: Adams Bloc Jackson

Admin: Administration

Admin R: Administration Republican

Admin(t): Tendency to support the administration

Am: American

Am Lab: American Labor

Am Labi: American Laborite

Anti-Abt: Anti-Abolitionist

Anti-Ad F: Anti-Adams Federalist

Anti-Admin: Anti-Administration

Anti- Admin(t): Tendency to oppose the administration

Anti-D: Anti-Democrat

Anti-D+SR: Anti-Democrat and States Rights

Anti-D [SR]: Anti-Democrat [States Rights]

Anti-F: Anti-Federalist

Anti-Jac: Anti-Jackson

Anti-Jac D: Anti-Jackson Democrat

Anti-Mas: Anti-Mason

Anti-Mon D: Anti-Monopoly Democrat

Anti-Monopt: Anti-Monopolist

Anti-Monopt D: Anti-Monopolist Democrat

Anti-Slav: Anti-Slavery

Bord Unt: Border Unionist

C: Conservative

C Cen R: Conservative Centrist Republican

Calh: Calhoun

Calh Nul: Calhoun Nullifier

CD: Conservative Democrat

Cen R: Centrist Republican

Cen+Rad: Centrist and Radical

Clay D: Clay Democrat

CR: Conservative Republican

C+R: Conservative and Republican

Com: Communist

Craw: Crawford

Craw R: Crawford Republican

Craw Jac: Crawford/Jackson

Cst Un: Constitutional Union

D: Democrat

D-C: Democrat Conservative

D-R: Democratic-Republican

D+Anti-M: Democratic Anti-Masonic

D+Fr Soil: Democrat and Free Soiler

D+R: Democrat and Republican

DBI: Democratic Bloc 1

DBII: Democratic Bloc 2

DBIII: Democratic Bloc 3

DBIV: Democratic Bloc 4

DFL: Democratic Farmer Labor

Doug D: Douglas Democrat

Ext CR: Extreme Conservative Republican

Ext Rad R: Extreme Radical Republican

F: Federalist

F [f]: Federalist fringe

F [I]: Federalist Independent

FBI: Federalist Bloc 1

FBII: Federalist Bloc 2

FBIII: Federalist Bloc 3

FBIV: Federalist Bloc 4

Far-Lab: Farmer-Labor

Far-Labi: Farmer-Laborite

Far Alnc: Farmer Alliance

Fr Soil: Free Soil

Fr Soiler: Free Soiler. Please note: Free Soil and Free Soiler are both used as party identifications by Martis (1989).

Fr Soil D: Free Soil Democrat

Fr Soil W: Free Soil Whig

FSR: Republicans who were Free Soilers

Fust: Fusionist

Gold D: Gold Democrat

I Ad: Independent Adams

I Jac: Independent Jackson

I: Independent

I & D: Independent and Democrat

I Sil R: Independent Silver Republican

IC: Independent Conservative

ID: Independent Democrat

I[D] Independent Democrat. Please note: Both ID and I[D] appear as abbreviations for Independent Democrat in Martis (1989).

IR: Independent Republican

Jac: Jackson

Jac D: Jackson Democrat

Jac Jac: Jackson Bloc Jackson

Jac B1 Jac: Jackson Bloc 1 Jackson

Jac B2 Jac: Jackson Bloc 2 Jackson

Jac R: Jackson Republican

Jeff D: Jefferson Democrat

Jeff R: Jeffersonian Republican

Joh C: Johnson Conservative

Law Ord: Law and Order

L: Liberal

LR: Liberal Republican

Lib: Liberty

Loco: Loco-Foco

LR: Liberal Republican

Mod R: Modern Republican

NDR: Republicans who were Northern Democrats

Non-Par: Non-Partisan

Non-Par D: Non-Partisan Democrat

Non-Par R: Non-Partisan Republican

Non-A: Non-aligned

NR: National Republican

N-R: National Republican. Please note: Martis (1989) uses both NR and N-R as abbreviations for National Republican Party.

North D: Northern Democrat

North W: Northern Whig

Null: Nullifier

NWR: Republicans who were Northern Whigs

Old Line W: Old Line Whig

Opp: Opposition

PP: People's or Populist Party. See Martis (1989), pp. 45-46, for a discussion.

PP I: Peoples' Independent

Pop: Populist

Popu Sover: Popular Sovereignty Democrat

Pro Bk S: Pro-Black Suffrage Radical

Prog: Progressive

Prog R: Progressive Republican

Pt Tar D: Protective Tariff Democrat

Q: Quid

Q [f]: Quid fringe

R: Republican

R [Clinton]: Republican Clintonian

R [CR]: Republican Conservative Republican

R [DcR]: Republican Discontented Republican

R [I]: Republican Independent

R [invis]: Republican Invisible

R [Madison]: Republican Madisonian

R [Mav]: Republican Maverick

R& Prog: Republican and Progressive

Rad: Radical

Rad Cen: Radical Centrist

Rad R: Radical Republican

Readj: Readjuster

Readj D: Readjuster Democrat

Readj I: Readjuster Independent

Region I: Regional Group 1

Region II: Regional Group 2

Region III: Regional Group 3

Ro R: Roosevelt Republican

SDD: So. Democrats who remained So. Democrats

Sil: Silver

Sil R: Silver Republican

Silvt: Silverite

Soc: Socialist

South BI: South Bloc I

South D: Southern Democrat

South East and West BI: South East and West Bloc 1

South East and West BII: South East and West Bloc 2

South East and West BIII: South East and West Bloc 3

South W: Southern Whig

SR: States' Rights

SRD: States' Rights Democrat

SRW: States' Rights Whig

Stck: Sticker

Sq Deal: Square Deal

SU: Southern Unionists who became members of the American Party and later the Constitutional Union Party

SWD: So. Whigs who aligned with So. Democrats

Tar-for-Rev D: Tariff for Revenue Democrat

Tar D: Tariff Democrats

TRo R: Teddy Roosevelt Republican

Tyler Man: Tyler Man

UC: United Conservative

UD: United Democrat

Un: Union

Un C: Union Conservative

Uncd Unt: Unconditional Unionist

Un D: Union Democrat

Un R: Union Republican

Unt: Unionist

UR: United Republican

VB: Van Buren

VBC: Van Buren Conservative

VBD: Van Buren Democrat

VP: Vice President

W-D: Whig-Democrat

W: Whig

W [Loco Foco]: Whig [Loco Foco]

W+D: Whig and Democrat

War D: War Democrat

West BIV: West Bloc 4

 

STALPHA CHARACTER(2)

State names. This variable is the two-digit alphabetical coding of the names of the states that members of Congress represented in the specific year of a given entry.

AK--Alaska

AL--Alabama

AR--Arkansas

AZ--Arizona

CA--California

CO--Colorado

CT--Connecticut

DE--Delaware

FL--Florida

GA--Georgia

HI--Hawaii

IA--Iowa

ID--Idaho

IL--Illinois

IN--Indiana

KS--Kansas

KY--Kentucky

LA--Louisiana

MA--Massachusetts

MD--Maryland

ME--Maine

MI--Michigan

MN--Minnesota

MO--Missouri

MS--Mississippi

MT--Montana

NC--North Carolina

ND--North Dakota

NE--Nebraska

NH--New Hampshire

NJ--New Jersey

NM--New Mexico

NV--Nevada

NY--New York

OH--Ohio

OK--Oklahoma

OR--Oregon

PA--Pennsylvania

RI--Rhode Island

SC--South Carolina

SD--South Dakota

TN--Tennessee

TX--Texas

UT--Utah

VA--Virginia

VT--Vermont

WA--Washington

WI--Wisconsin

WV--West Virginia

WY--Wyoming

 

STATE NUMBER

ICPSR abbreviations for states represented by members of Congress in a given year. These are the same codes at the STATE field in the Election table.

 

MCNAME CHARACTER(13)

Last name of the member. The initials of the first and middle names are included when needed to distinguish from other members in the same Congress. This list of names was developed by Keith T. Poole and Howard Rosenthal in ICPSR 9822, "United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1798-1987: Reformatted Data."

BIOGDIR CHARACTER(7)

Member's party identification, according to the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971. See Martis (1989), p. 13, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification.

GUIDE CHARACTER(10)

Member's party identification, according to Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (1975). See Martis (1989), p. 15, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification.

CONGRESS NUMBER

Individual Congresses by number.

 

DIST NUMBER

District represented by Member. This variable includes codes for standard single member districts, at-large districts, and districts in which the Representative was elected on a general ticket. The district number itself is used as the value given here for single member districts as well as any so-called "plural districts". These plural districts are not distinguished by a special code but they can be identified by the presence of several Representatives, all regularly elected, who have the same district number. In brief, all but seven elections until 1970 had at least two House members elected from at-large districts, that is state-wide elections. Multi-member districts were also used from the 3rd to the 25th Congresses. See the discussion of multi-member districts and at-large elections in CQ's Guide to Congress (1994, 3rd ed., p. 916).

The code values are the same as the district field in the Election table.

 

PARTY NUMBER

Party identifications as determined by Martis (1989). Following Martis, party codes are provided for each House member for the 1st through the 24th Congresses.

1 Federalist

9 Jefferson Republican

10 Anti-Federalist

11 Jefferson Democrat

13 Democrat-Republican

22 Adams

25 National Republican

26 Anti Masonic

29 Whig

34 Whig and Democrat

37 Constitutional Unionist

40 Anti-Democrat and States Rights

41 Anti-Jackson Democrat

43 Calhoun Nullifier

44 Nullifier

46 States Rights

48 States Rights Whig

100 Democrat

101 Jackson Democrat

103 Democrat and Anti-Mason

104 Van Buren Democrat

105 Conservative Democrat

108 Anti-Lecompton Democrat

110 Popular Sovereignty Democrat

112 Conservative

114 Readjuster

117 Readjuster Democrat

118 Tariff for Revenue Democrat

119 United Democrat

200 Republican

202 Union Conservative

203 Unconditional Unionist

206 Unionist

208 Liberal Republican

212 United Republican

213 Progressive Republican

214 Non-Partisan and Republican

215 War Democrat

300 Free Soil

301 Free Soil Democrat

302 Free Soil Whig

304 Anti-Slavery

308 Free Soil American and Democrat

310 American

326 National Greenbacker

328 Independent

329 Ind. Democrat

331 Ind. Republican

333 Ind. Republican-Democrat

336 Anti-Monopolist

337 Anti-Monopoly Democrat

340 Populist

341 People's

347 Prohibitionist

353 Ind. Silver Republican

354 Silver Republican

355 Union

356 Union Labor

370 Progressive

380 Socialist

401 Fusionist

402 Liberal

403 Law and Order

522 American Labor

537 Farmer-Labor

555 Jackson

603 Ind. Whig

1060 Silver

1061 Emancipationist

1111 Liberty

1116 Conservative Republican

1275 Anti-Jackson

1346 Jackson Republican

3333 Opposition

4000 Anti-Administration

4444 Union

5000 Pro-Administration

6000 Crawford Federalist

6666 Crawford Republican

7000 Jackson Federalist

7777 Crawford Republican

8000 Adams-Clay Federalist

8888 Adams-Clay Republican

9000 Unknown

9999 Unknown

 

BELL CHARACTER(5)

Member's party identification according to Bell (1973). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

DAUER CHARACTER(17)

Member's party identification according to Dauer (1953). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

HOADLEY CHARACTER(1)

Member's party identification according to Hoadley (1986). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

HENDERSN CHARACTER(8)

Member's party identification according to Henderson (1970, 1773a, 1973b). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

FIRSTFED CHARACTER(4)

Member's party identification according to Jensen and Becker (1976-1989), Den Boer (1984), and unpublished data. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for their use in making party identifications.

 

CUNNINGH CHARACTER(6)

Member's party identification according to Cunningham (1957, 1963a, 1963b, 1978a, 1978b). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of Cunningham's party identifications. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for their use in making party identifications.

 

LONGPTY CHARACTER(5)

Member's party identification according to Long (1966). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this source. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

NILES CHARACTER(5)

Member's party identification according to the newspaper, Niles' Register. See Martis (1989), pp. 14-15, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

HICKEY CHARACTER(1)

Member's party identification according to Hickey (1972, 1978, 1979). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

NIELSEN CHARACTER(19)

Member's party identification according to Nielsen (1968). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

GLOBE CHARACTER(4)

Member's party identification according to the newspaper, the Congressional Globe. See Martis (1989), p. 15, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

 

LYNN CHARACTER(7)

Member's party identification according to Lynn (1972a, 1972b). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

 

LINDEEN CHARACTER(4)

Member's party identification according to Lindeen (n.d.). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

 

HATZENBU CHARACTER(9)

Member's party identification according to Hatzenbuehler (1972) and Hatzenbuehler and Ivie (1980, 1983). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

MCLAUGHL CHARACTER(5)

Member's party identification according to McLaughlin (1983, 1985). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

BOWLING

Member's party identification according to Bowling (1968, 1987). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

LAMPI CHARACTER(6)

Member's party identification according to Lampi (n.d.). See Martis (1989), pp. 15-16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

PRESVOTE CHARACTER(4)

Member's party identification according to the presidential vote of 1825 in the U.S. House of Representatives as given in Niles' Weekly Register, vol. 27, Feb. 19, 1825, p. 387. See Martis (1989), pp. 14-15, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

KYGAZETT CHARACTER(5)

Member's party identification according to the Kentucky Gazette (Lexington). See Martis (1989), pp. 30-31, for an analysis of party identifications in the early Jacksonian period. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

MATTHIAS CHARACTER(4)

Member's party identification according to Benjamin Matthias (1835). See Martis (1989), pp. 30-31, for an analysis of party identifications in the early Jacksonian period. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

GUIDEOPP CHARACTER(12)

Party identifications of the electoral opponents of the elected member according to CQ's Guide to U.S. Elections (1985, 2nd ed.). See Martis (1989), p. 15, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

CONGDIR CHARACTER(14)

Member's party identification according to the Congressional Directory, published throughout congressional history. See Martis (1989), p. 14, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

WORLD CHARACTER(8)

Member's party identification according to the World Almanac and Book of Facts (1868-1985). See Martis (1989), p. 15, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

TRIBUNE CHARACTER(20)

Member's party identification according to the newspaper, the New York Tribune. See Martis (1989), p. 15, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

SPEAKER CHARACTER(20)

Member's party identification as indicated by his/her vote for the Speaker of the House. See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

BIOD1913 CHARACTER(7)

Member's party identification according to the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1913 ed.. See Martis (1989), p. 13, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

ICPSR2 CHARACTER(5)

Senators' party identification according to the ICPSR 0004, "United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records." See Martis (1989), p. 13, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

CONGLOBE CHARACTER(5)

Member's party identification according to the newspaper, the Congressional Globe. See Martis (1989), p. 15, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

INTELLIG CHARACTER(4)

Member's party identification according to the newspaper, the National Intelligencer. See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of contemporary newspapers as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use in making party identifications.

 

MCPHERS CHARACTER(5)

Member's party identification according to MacPherson (1868-1894). See Martis (1989) for an analysis of party identifications in the post-Civil War period. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for the use of this source in making party identifications.

 

BLAINE CHARACTER(2)

Member's party identification according to Blaine (1886). See Martis (1989), p. 39, for an analysis of party identifications in the post-Civil War period. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for the use of this source in making party identifications.

 

BENEDICT CHARACTER(27)

Member's party identification according to Benedict (1974). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for the use of this source in making party identifications.

 

CURRY CHARACTER(4)

Member's party identification according to Curry (1966, 1968). See Martis (1989), p. 16, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for the use of this source in making party identifications.

 

LEXGAZZ CHARACTER(2)

Member's party identification according to the newspaper, the Lexington Gazette. See Martis (1989), p. 355, for an analysis of party identifications in the period in which this newspaper was used as a source. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for the use of this source in making party identifications.

 

RICHWHIG CHARACTER(2)

Member's party identification according to the newspaper, the Richmond Whig. See Martis (1989), p. 355, for an analysis of party identifications in the period in which this newspaper was used as a source. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for the use of this source in making party identifications.

 

SMITH CHARACTER(3)

Member's party identification according to the speech of the Hon. S.A. Smith of Tenn. in the U.S. House of Representatives, April 4, 1856, Appendix to the Congressional Globe, 34th Congress, 1st Session, pp. 351-355. See Martis (1989), pp. 32-34, for an analysis of party identifications in the antebellum period. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for the use of this source in making party identifications.

 

MEMBER_ID NUMBER

ICPSR identification number for each member. Same as MEMBER_ID in the other database tables.

 

GUIDECLS CHARACTER (8)

Member's party identification from Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections, 2nd ed. (1985). See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use as a source of party identification.

 

GIUNTA CHARACTER (18)

Member's party identification according to Giunta (1980). See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use as a source of party identification.

 

RYAN CHARACTER (18)

Member's party identification according to Ryan (1971). See Martis (1989), pp. 27-28, for an analysis of this as a source of party identification. See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use as a source of party identification.

 

SWANSTRM CHARACTER (2)

Member's party identification according to Swanstrom (1962). See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use as a source of party identification.

 

PHNXGAZ CHARACTER (8)

Member's party identification according to Phenix Gazette (sic). See Martis (1989). Part 3, for its use as a source of party identification.

SILBEY CHARACTER (8)

Member's party identification according to Silbey (1967). See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use as a source of party identification.

 

BOGUE CHARACTER (10)

Member's party identification according to Bogue (1981). See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use as a source of party identification.

 

BIOD1911 CHARACTER (13)

Member's party identification according to the Biographical Congress Directory, 1774-1911 (see U.S. Congress. Senate. 1913). See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use as a source of party identification.

 

STEGMAIR CHARACTER (10)

Member's party identification according to Stegmaier (1975). See Martis (1989), Part 4, for its use as a source of party identification.

Data About Congressional Committees

The Committee Table

CONGRESS NUMBER

Number of the specific Congress. The First Congress is numbered one, the Hundredth Congress is numbered 100, etc.

CONGRESS_SESSION NUMBER

Number of session. Regular sessions are coded "1," "2," and "3." Special sessions are coded "0". Note: data on congressional sessions in this table are incomplete. The authoritative version of the variable CONGRESS_SESSION, containing all data on congressional sessions, can be found in the Rollcall table of this database.

MEMBER_ID NUMBER

The ICPSR assigned Members 5-digit codes in alphabetical order from the 1961 edition of the Biographical Directory. These ran from 00001 to 10471. Members sworn after 1961 were numbered alphabetically within each of the successive Congresses to which they were originally elected. Replacement Members are numbered in chronological order.

COMMITTEE NUMBER

Name of the committee within each chamber. The following lists each of the House and Senate standing committees and the select committees since the 38th Congress for the House and the 46th Congress for the Senate, along with the committee's code number (Code), the Congress in which it was established (Cong. Est.), the Congress in which it was abolished (Cong. Abol.), and the committee name (Committee), which may be abbreviated. Where committees were still in existence as of 1992, the codebook entry under Cong. Abol. contains a dash (---).

Each of the multitude of House and Senate select committees created in earlier Congresses has a number corresponding to the number of the Congress and the sequence in which it was created. For example, the fiftieth House select committee created in the Eleventh Congress would be numbered 11.50. The committee rosters (organized by committee) and the member rosters (organized alphabetically by member) for all the committee assignments in this data set will be published by Congressional Quarterly in 2001 (Charles Stewart, Garrison Nelson, and David Canon, eds.).

Different coding schemes for committees have been used for different eras. For example, the House Committee on Agriculture does not always have the same code throughout different eras even though its jurisdictions has remained substantially the same.

Note: Caution should be taken in using data on committees. Congress has adopted many different rules governing committees over the centuries. Analysis of them should take these into account. For example, an analysis of committee membership must take into account the fact that members of standing committees have been selected in many different ways, and for different periods of time.

For a overviews about changing House and Senate rules on committees, see Deering and Smith (1997), Haynes (1938), McConachie (1898), and Nelson (1993).

HOUSE STANDING COMMITTEE CODES, 1st-37th CONGRESSES:

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

1

8

37

Accounts

2

16

37

Agriculture

23

3

37

Claims

25

16

37

Commerce

26

4

15

Commerce and Manufactures

31

10

37

District of Columbia

45

1

37

Elections

49

28

36

Engraving

50

36

37

Enrolled Bills

54

37

37

Exp., Interior

57

14

37

Expend., Navy

58

14

37

Expend., P.O.

59

14

37

Expend., State

60

14

37

Expend., Treasury

61

14

37

Expend., War

63

14

37

Expend., Public Buildings

72

17

37

Foreign Affairs

102

17

37

Indian Affairs

111

22

37

Invalid Pensions

121

13

37

Judiciary

133

36

37

Library

141

16

37

Manufactures

144

25

37

Mileage

145

17

37

Military Affairs

146

19

21

Military Pensions

147

24

37

Militia

151

17

37

Naval Affairs

161

36

37

Pacific Railroad

162

25

37

Patents

164

13

19

Pensions and Revolutionary Claims

166

10

37

Post Offices and Post Roads

167

36

37

Printing

168

14

37

Private Land Claims

169

25

37

Public Buildings and Grounds

170

13

37

Public Expenditures

171

9

37

Public Lands

183

4

37

Revisal and Unfinished Business

185

19

37

Revolutionary Claims

186

22

37

Revolutionary Pensions

189

22

37

Roads and Canals

190

31

37

Rules

211

19

37

Territories

242

4

37

Ways and Means

 

HOUSE STANDING COMMITTEE CODES, 38TH-79TH CONGRESSES:

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

1

38

79

Accounts

2

38

79

Agriculture

3

46

69

Alcoholic Liquor Traffic

4

39

79

Appropriations

11

39

79

Banking and Currency

21

45

79

Census

22

39

79

Civil Service

23

38

79

Claims

24

38

79

Coinage, Weights, and Measures

25

38

51

Commerce

31

38

79

District of Columbia

33

51

75

Disposition of Executive Papers

41

48

79

Education

42

40

47

Education and Labor

44

45

79

Election of President and Vice President...

45

38

53

Elections

46

54

79

Elections # 1

47

54

79

Elections # 2

48

54

79

Elections # 3

50

38

79

Enrolled Bills

51

51

69

Expends., Agriculture

52

63

69

Expends., Commerce

53

59

62

Expends., Commerce and Labor

54

38

69

Expends., Interior

55

43

69

Expends., Justice

56

63

69

Expends., Labor

57

38

69

Expends., Navy

58

38

69

Expends., Post Office

59

38

69

Expends., State

60

38

69

Expends., Treasury

61

38

69

Expends., War

62

70

79

Expends., Executive Departments

63

38

69

Expends., Public Buildings

71

64

79

Flood Control

72

38

79

Foreign Affairs

74

40

43

Freedman Bureau

101

51

79

Immigration and Naturalization

102

38

79

Indian Affairs

103

57

69

Industrial Arts and Expositions

104

56

79

Insular Affairs

109

52

79

Interstate and Foreign Commerce

111

38

79

Invalid Pensions

112

69

79

Irrigation and Reclamation

113

51

68

Irrigation of Arid Lands (renamed #112)

121

38

79

Judiciary

131

48

79

Labor

132

46

61

Levees and Improvements of the Miss. River

133

38

79

Library

141

38

61

Manufactures

142

70

79

Memorials

143

50

79

Merchant Marine and Fisheries

144

38

69

Mileage

145

38

79

Military Affairs

147

38

61

Militia

148

39

79

Mines and Mining

149

42

45

Mississippi Levees (renamed # 132)

151

38

79

Naval Affairs

161

38

61

Pacific Railroads

162

38

79

Patents

163

46

79

Pensions

166

38

79

Post Office and Post Roads

167

38

79

Printing

168

38

61

Private Land Claims

169

38

79

Public Buildings and Grounds

170

38

47

Public Expenditures

171

38

79

Public Lands

181

41

69

Railways and Canals

182

41

68

Reform in the Civil Service

183

38

40

Revisal & Unfinished Business (renamed # 184)

184

40

79

Revisal of the Laws

185

38

42

Revolutionary Claims

186

38

46

Revolutionary Pensions

187

48

79

Rivers and Harbors

188

63

79

Roads

189

38

41

Roads and Canals

190

38

79

Rules

211

38

79

Territories

221

79

79

Un-American Activities

231

47

61

Ventilation and Acoustics

241

43

79

War Claims

242

38

79

Ways and Means

 

HOUSE STANDING COMMITTEE CODES, 80th-101ST CONGRESSES:

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

102

16

---

Agriculture

104

38

---

Appropriations

106

80

---

Armed Services

111

38

93

Banking and Currency (renamed 112)

112

94

94

Banking, Currency and Housing (renamed 113)

113

95

---

Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs

115

93

---

Budget

120

80

---

District of Columbia

124

80

---

Education and Labor

126

80

82

Expenditures in the Exec. Depts. (renamed 138)

128

97

---

Energy and Commerce

132

80

93

Foreign Affairs (renamed 150)

134

96

---

Foreign Affairs (current)

138

83

---

Government Operations

142

80

---

House Administration

146

82

102

Interior and Insular Affairs (renamed 164)

148

91

93

Internal Security (abolished)

150

94

95

International Affairs (renamed 134)

152

80

96

Interstate and Foreign Commerce (renamed 128)

156

80

---

Judiciary

160

80

---

Merchant Marine and Fisheries

164

103

---

Natural Resources

168

80

---

Post Office and Civil Service

170

80

81

Public Lands (renamed 146)

172

80

93

Public Works (renamed 173)

173

94

---

Public Works and Transportation

176

80

---

Rules

180

86

93

Science and Astronautics (renamed 181)

181

94

99

Science and Technology (renamed 182)

182

100

---

Science, Space, and Technology

184

94

---

Small Business

186

90

---

Standards of Official Conduct

188

80

90

UnAmerican Activities (renamed 148)

192

80

---

Veterans' Affairs

196

80

---

Ways and Means

HOUSE SELECT COMMITTEE CODES, 38TH-79TH CONGRESSES:

As the following committee descriptions note, there are many different kinds of select committees, including permanent, ad hoc select, and special and ad hoc. To make matters more confusing, Congress can inconsistently apply these labels. So, for example, the same kind of select committee can possess different kinds of authority. For an overview of the different kinds of select committees, see Nelson (1993).

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

1

51

51

Accounts of J. P. Leedom, Late Sgt. at Arms

4

49

49

Admission to H. Floor in Violation of Rules

7

47

52

Alcoholic Liquor Traffic

10

48

49

American Ship Building

13

63

63

Assault on Rep. Sims of Tenn. by C. C. Glover

16

48

48

Boynton Investigation

19

66

67

Budget

25

56

56

Contested Case of Brigham H. Roberts

28

56

56

Centennial of the Louisiana Purchase

31

56

56

Centennial of Washington City

34

47

52

Civil Service Reform

37

52

52

Columbian Exposition

40

79

79

Study and Survey of Nat'l Defense Prog.

43

73

73

Conservation of Wildlife Resources

46

60

60

Distribution of Rms. in the H. Office Bldg.

49

55

55

D.C. Gas and Telephone Companies

55

72

73

The Economy

58

47

52

Election of U.S. Pres. and V.P.

61

50

52

Eleventh Census

64

56

57

Examination and Disposition of Documents

67

66

66

Expenditures in the War Department

70

47

47

Expenses from Death of Pres. Garfield

73

60

60

Expunging Remarks from the Record

76

74

74

Flood Conditions in New York

79

60

60

Frauds and Depredations in Public Service

85

50

50

Government Printing Office Investigation

91

50

50

Import. of Contract Labor, Convicts, Paupers

94

51

52

Immigration and Naturalization

97

58

58

Impeachment of Charles Swayne

100

50

51

Indian Depredation Claims

103

57

58

Industrial Arts and Expositions

106

48

48

Indian Schools and Yellowstone Park

109

68

68

Air Services of Army, Navy, Postal Service

112

65

65

Interstate Commerce bet. Ill and Mo.

115

76

76

Interstate Migration of Destitute Citizens

118

60

60

Introduction of Bills and Resolutions

121

77

77

Investigate Air Accidents

124

68

68

Alleged Charges agst. Two Members of Congress

127

64

64

Alleged Inaccuracies in Congressional Record

130

61

61

Investigate Alleged Ship Subsidy Lobby

131

78

78

Problems of Small Business

133

50

50

Attempts to Influence Architect New Library

136

70

79

Investigate Campaign Expenditures

139

64

64

Investigate Lang. Inserted in Cong. Record

142

73

73

Investigate Statements Made by Dr. W. A. Wirt

145

69

69

Investigate Charges against Rep. John Langley

148

65

65

Investigate Charges by Mr. Heflin

151

71

71

Investigate Communist Propaganda in U.S.

157

74

74

Investigate Executive Agencies (I)

158

79

79

Investigate Executive Agencies (II)

160

78

78

Investigate Acts of Exec. Agencies

162

77

78

Investigate Federal Expenditures

163

52

52

Investigate Federal Election Officers in NYC

166

71

71

Investigate Fiscal Rels. between D.C. and ...

169

72

72

Gov. Competition with Priv. Enterprise

172

64

64

Impeachment Charges agst. H. Snowden Marshall

175

61

61

Investigate Indian Contracts in Oklahoma

178

73

73

Special Comm. on the H. Restaurant

181

68

68

Investigate Nat'l Disabled Soldiers League

184

74

74

Investigate Old-Age Pension Plans

187

65

65

Investigate Ordnance and Ammunition

190

73

73

Investigate Real Estate Bondholders' Reorgs.

193

58

58

Relations of Members with Post Office Dept.

196

79

79

Investigate Supplies and Shortages of Food

199

62

62

Taylor and Other Systems of Shop Mgement.

202

74

74

Special Comm. on the Amer. Retail Fed.

205

62

62

Investigate the American Sugar Refining Co.

208

56

57

Appt. and Payment of H. Employees

211

63

63

Investigate the Cotton Situation in the South

214

79

79

Investigate the Disposition of Surplus Prop.

217

67

67

Investigate Escape of G.C. Bergdoll

220

78

78

Investigate the FCC.

223

59

59

Gov. Hosp. for the Insane (St. Eliz.)

226

47

47

Investigate the Charges against John Bailey

229

76

76

Spec. Comm. on the NLRB

232

65

65

Investigate the National Security League

235

52

52

Investigate the Panama Canal Company

238

52

52

Investigate the Pension Bureau

241

68

68

Prep., Sale, and Disposition of Gov....

244

51

51

Investigate Proposed Purchase of Ballot Boxes

247

78

78

Investigate Seizure of Montgomery Ward Co.

250

62

62

Investigate United States Steel Corporation

253

60

60

Investigation of Charges Made by G. L. Lilley

256

56

56

Investigation of Hazing at Military Academy

259

51

52

Irrigation of Arid Lands

262

54

54

Leavenworth Soldiers' Home Investigation

265

50

50

Library Building

268

63

63

Investigation of Alleged Lobbying by NAM

271

48

48

Ordnance and Gunnery

274

47

48

Payment of Pensions, Bounty, and Back Pay

277

70

70

Penal and Reformatory Institutions

280

78

79

Spec. Comm. on Post-War Econ. Policy, Plan.

283

78

79

Post-War Military Policy

286

60

60

Pres. Message Relating to the Secret Service

292

47

48

Public Health

295

60

60

Investigate the Price of Pulp and Paper

298

57

57

Purchase of Danish West Indian Islands

301

49

49

Railroad Labor Troubles

304

50

50

Reading Railroad Strike

307

67

67

Readjustment of Service Pay

310

52

52

Rep. T. Watson's Charges of Drunkenness

313

68

68

Shipping Bd. and Emergency Fleet Corporation

316

66

66

Shipping Board Operations

319

51

51

Silver Pool Investigation

325

64

64

Striking from Record Rep. Starks's Remarks

328

76

76

Spec. Comm. on the Anthracite Emergency Prog.

331

49

49

Telephone Investigation

334

48

48

Tenth Census

337

55

57

Twelfth Census

340

73

75

Un-American Activities (Special Committee)

343

61

61

Useless House Documents in the Folding Room

346

47

52

Ventilation and Acoustics Hall of H. of Reps.

349

66

66

Investigate Right of V. L. Berger to H. Seat

352

65

66

Water Power

355

47

47

Women's Suffrage

358

51

51

World's Fair

HOUSE SELECT COMMITTEE CODES, 80TH-101ST CONGRESSES

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

201

77

83

Chamber Improvements

202

77

93

Small Business (became standing 184)

203

80

80

Newsprint

204

80

80

Foreign Aid

205

80

80

Investigate Transactions on Commodity Exchanges

206

80

93

Investigate Campaign Expenditures

207

80

80

Investigate the Fed. Communications Commission

208

81

81

Lobbying Activities

209

81

82

Investigate Use of Chemicals, Pesticides, and Insecticides in and with...Food Products

210

81

82

Investigate Abuses in Educ., Training, and Loan Guaranty Programs of WWII Veterans

211

82

82

Katyn Forest Massacre

212

82

82

Investigate Tax Exempt Fdtns. and Other Orgs.

213

82

82

Offensive, Undesirable Bks., Mags., Comic Bks.

214

83

83

Investigate Tax Exempt Fdtns. and Other Orgs.

215

83

83

Communist Aggression

216

83

84

Certain Benefits for Surviving Dependents of Deceased Members and Former Members of Armed Forces

217

84

84

Financial Position of White County Bridge Commission

218

84

--

House Recording Studio

219

85

85

Astronautics and Space Exploration (became Standing 180)

220

87

87

Administration of Export Control Act of 1949

221

88

88

Government Research

222

88

88

Study Factors Relating to General Welfare and Education of Congressional Pages

223

89

89

Standards and Conduct

224

90

90

Seating of Adam Clayton Powell in 90th Congress

225

90

94

House Beauty Shop

226

91

93

Regulate Parking on the H. Side of Capitol

227

91

93

Crime

228

91

93

House Restaurant

229

91

91

Investigate All Aspects of U.S. Military Involvement in Southeast Asia

230

93

93

Committees I (Bolling)

231

94

102

Aging (Permanent Select Committee)

232

94

94

Intelligence (Nedzi)

233

94

95

Intelligence (Pike)

234

94

96

Outer Continental Shelf (an ad hoc select committee, which are relatively rare panels distinguished by the possession of legislative authority).

235

94

94

Study Prob. of U.S. Servicemen MIA in SE Asia

236

94

94

Professional Sports

237

94

102

Narcotics Abuse and Control

238

94

95

Assassinations

239

95

95

Ethics

240

95

95

Congressional Operations

241

95

95

Energy (ad hoc)

242

95

--

Intelligence (Permanent Select Committee)

243

95

96

Population

244

96

96

Committees II (Patterson)

245

98

102

Children, Youth and Families

246

98

102

Hunger

247

100

100

Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran

248

100

100

Fire safety

 

SENATE STANDING COMMITTEE CODES, 1st-48th CONGRESSES:

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

4

19

48

Agriculture (renamed # 5)

5

48

48

Agriculture and Forestry

7

40

48

Appropriations

9

16

48

Audit and Control Sen. Contingent Expenses

24

43

48

Civil Service and Retrenchment

25

14

48

Claims

28

19

48

Commerce

29

14

18

Commerce and Manufactures

42

14

48

District of Columbia

47

40

41

Education (renamed # 47)

48

41

48

Education and Labor

51

17

48

Engrossed Bills

52

27

48

Epidemic Diseases

70

48

48

Expenditures of Public Money

73

14

48

Finance

75

48

48

Fish and Fisheries

78

14

48

Foreign Relations

92

46

48

Improvement of Miss. River and Tributaries

93

16

48

Indian Affairs

102

42

42

Investigation and Retrenchment

111

14

48

Judiciary

122

15

48

Library

131

19

48

Manufactures

132

14

48

Military Affairs

134

14

34

Militia

135

39

48

Mines and Mining

142

14

48

Naval Affairs

162

38

42

Pacific Railroads

163

25

48

Patents

165

14

48

Pensions

168

14

48

Post Office and Post Roads

169

27

48

Printing

170

19

48

Private Land Claims

171

42

48

Privileges and Elections

172

16

34

Public Buildings (renamed # 173)

173

35

48

Public Buildings and Grounds

176

14

48

Public Lands

181

43

48

Railroads

184

27

34

Retrenchment

186

40

48

Revision of the Laws

187

22

48

Revolutionary Claims

188

16

34

Roads and Canals

189

43

48

Rules

201

28

48

Territories

204

46

48

Transportation Routes to the Seaboard

SENATE STANDING COMMITTEE CODES, 49TH-79TH CONGRESSES:

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

5

49

79

Agriculture and Forestry

7

49

79

Appropriations

9

49

79

Audit and Control of Sen. Contingent Expenses

13

63

79

Banking and Currency

21

58

66

Canadian Relations

22

50

66

Census

23

67

79

Civil Service

24

49

66

Civil Service and Retrenchment (renamed # 23)

25

49

79

Claims

26

56

66

Coast and Insular Survey

27

49

66

Coast Defenses

28

49

79

Commerce

31

61

66

Conservation of National Resources

34

54

66

Corporations Organized in District of Columbia

35

58

66

Cuban Relations

41

61

66

Disposition of Useless Papers in Exec. Depts.

42

49

79

District of Columbia

48

49

79

Education and Labor

51

49

66

Engrossed Bills

52

49

79

Enrolled Bills

55

49

54

Epidemic Diseases

56

54

57

Est. the Univ. of the U.S. (renamed # 211)

57

49

66

Examine Branches of the Civil Service

58

67

79

Expends., Executive Departments

59

61

66

Expends., Agriculture

60

64

66

Expends., Commerce

61

62

63

Expends., Commerce and Labor

62

61

66

Expends., Justice

63

63

66

Expends., Labor

64

61

66

Expends., Navy

65

61

66

Expends., Interior

66

61

66

Expends., Treasury

67

60

66

Expends., State

68

61

66

Expends., War

69

61

66

Expends., Post Office Department

70

49

50

Expenditures of Public Money

73

49

79

Finance

74

49

66

Fisheries

76

61

66

Five Civilized Tribes of Indians

78

49

79

Foreign Relations

79

54

66

Forest Reservations and the Protection of Game

80

56

66

Geological Survey

91

51

79

Immigration

92

49

57

Improvement of Miss. River and Tributaries

93

49

79

Indian Affairs

94

53

66

Indian Depredations

95

61

66

NA

97

56

79

Interoceanic Canal

98

50

79

Interstate Commerce

101

61

66

Indian Lands

103

58

59

NA

104

67

79

Irrigation and Reclamation

105

52

66

Irrigation and Reclamation

111

49

79

Judiciary

122

49

79

Library

131

49

79

Manufactures

132

49

79

Military Affairs

135

49

79

Mines and Mining

136

58

66

Mississippi River Improvements

141

62

66

NA

142

49

79

Naval Affairs

154

51

60

Org., Conduct, and Expends. of Exec. Depts.

161

56

66

Pacific Islands and Porto Rico

162

53

66

Pacific Railroads

163

49

79

Patents

165

49

79

Pensions

166

56

66

Philippines

168

49

79

Post Office and Post Roads

169

49

79

Printing

170

49

66

Private Land Claims

171

49

79

Privileges and Elections

173

49

79

Public Buildings and Grounds

174

61

61

Public Expenditures

175

55

66

Public Health and National Quarantine

176

49

66

Public Lands (renamed # 177)

177

67

79

Public Lands and Surveys

181

49

66

Railroads

182

53

57

Relations with Canada

183

56

57

Relations with Cuba

185

66

67

Revision of the Laws

186

49

60

Revision of the Laws

187

49

66

Revolutionary Claims

189

49

79

Rules

193

61

66

Standards, Weights, and Measures

201

49

66

Territories

202

67

79

Territories and Insular Possessions

203

61

66

Transportation and Sale of Meat Products

204

49

66

Transportation Routes to the Seaboard

211

58

66

University of the United States

231

61

66

Women's Suffrage

 

SENATE STANDING COMMITTEE CODES, 80TH-101ST CONGRESSES:

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

302

85

95

Aeronautical and Space Sciences (became part of 321)

304

80

95

Agriculture and Forestry (renamed 305)

305

95

---

Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry

306

80

---

Appropriations

308

80

---

Armed Services

313

80

91

Banking and Currency (renamed 314)

314

92

---

Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

316

93

---

Budget

320

88

95

Commerce (renamed 321)

321

95

---

Commerce, Science, and Transportation

324

80

95

District of Columbia (became part of 344)

328

80

82

Expenditures in Executive Depts. (renamed 342)

330

95

---

Energy and Natural Resources

332

95

---

Environment and Public Works

336

80

---

Finance

338

80

---

Foreign Relations

342

83

95

Government Operations (renamed 344)

344

95

---

Governmental Affairs

348

95

95

Human Resources (renamed 362)

352

81

95

Interior and Insular Affairs (renamed 330)

354

80

87

Interstate and Foreign Commerce (renamed 320)

358

80

---

Judiciary

362

95

---

Labor and Human Resources

363

80

95

Labor and Public Welfare (renamed 348)

370

80

95

Post Office and Civil Service (became part of 344)

372

80

80

Public Lands (renamed 352)

374

80

95

Public Works (renamed 332)

380

80

---

Rules and Administration

384

98

---

Small Business

388

92

---

Veterans' Affairs

SENATE SELECT COMMITTEE CODES, 46TH-79TH CONGRESSES:

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

1

51

51

Administrative Service of the Senate

2

49

49

Add. Accommodations for Library of Cong.

4

47

47

Alleged Corruption, Distilled Spirit Tax Bill

5

58

58

Appt., Postmaster, Hastings, Neb.

7

47

47

Armament of Navy and Seacoast Defenses

10

46

46

Results of Elections of Pres., V.P.

13

79

79

Atomic Energy

16

53

53

Attempted Bribery of Sens. on Sugar Tariff

19

46

46

Admit Cab. Officers to Seats on Sen. Floor

22

47

47

Sen. and H. Chamber Seats for Cab. Officers

25

51

51

Bill to Est. the Univ. of the U.S.

28

68

68

Campaign Expenditures in 1924

31

49

51

Centennial of U.S. Constitution

34

64

64

Clerical Assistance to Sens.

37

47

47

Collection of Internal Revenue in N.C.

40

50

50

Commerce between U.S. and Canada

43

49

49

Compensation of Employees of Sen.

46

47

60

Condition of the Potomac River Front

49

75

75

Conservation and Utiliz. of Aquatic Life

52

54

55

Construction of Nicaragua Canal

55

53

54

D.C. Corps.

58

67

67

Crop Insurance

61

53

53

Disaster at the Ford Theatre

64

59

60

Disposition of Useless Papers in Exec. Depts.

67

52

52

Private Employment of Armed Men (Pinkertons)

70

46

48

Epidemic Diseases

73

59

59

Examination and Disposition of Documents

76

47

47

Examine Conditions of Sioux and Crow Indians

79

46

48

Examine the Several Branches of Civil Service

82

53

53

Existing Public Distress

85

71

71

Expenditures in the 1930 Senatorial Campaign

88

60

60

Expenditures in the Agriculture Dept.

91

60

60

Expenditures in the Interior Dept.

94

60

60

Expenditures in the Justice Dept.

97

60

60

Expenditures in the Navy Dept.

100

60

60

Expenditures in the State Dept.

103

60

60

Expenditures in the Treasury Dept.

106

60

60

Expenditures in the War Dept.

109

77

77

Gov. Fiscal Affairs on Automat. Bal. Bdgt.

112

51

61

Five Civilized Tribes of Indians

115

53

53

Forest Reservations

118

54

54

Forest Reservations and Protection of Game

121

52

52

Forest Reservations in Cal.

124

54

55

Geological Survey

125

58

58

Impeachment of Judge Charge Swayne

127

51

52

Indian Depredations

130

49

50

Indian Traders

133

56

60

Industrial Expositions

136

46

53

Claims of U.S. Citizens Agst. Nicaraguan Gov.

139

47

47

Claims of U.S. Citizens Agst. Nicaraguan Gov. (47th Congress)

142

46

46

Alleged Frauds and Violence in 1878 Elections

145

54

55

International Expositions

148

52

52

Invasion of the Cherokee Territory (Sen.)

151

71

71

Sen. Hefflin Letter on N.Y. Racial Intermarriages

154

73

75

Investigate Air and Ocean Mail Contracts

157

73

75

Bankruptcy and Receivership in U.S. Courts

160

67

67

Bureaus and Agencies Dealing with Ex-Servicemen

163

72

73

1932 Campaign Expends.: Pres., V.P., Senate

166

46

46

Causes of Negro Emigration From to No. States

169

68

68

War Finance Corp. Loans in Idaho

172

67

67

Charges of Execution Without Trial of Enlisted Men of the Amer. Expeditionary Force in France

175

69

71

Expends. of Sen. Primary and General Elections

178

46

46

Investigate Freedmen's Savings and Trust Co.

181

77

78

Petroleum Product Shortages

184

61

61

Sen. Connections to Indian Land Contracts

187

49

49

Investigate Interstate Rail Contracts

190

72

72

Investigate Loans made by RFC

193

74

75

Investigate Lobbying Activities

196

78

79

Investigate Petroleum Resources

199

70

70

Investigate Pres. Campaign Expends.

202

74

75

1936 Pres., V.P., and Sen. Camp. Expends.

205

78

78

1944 Pres., V.P., and Sen. Camp. Expends.

208

68

68

Propaganda on Taxation and Soldiers' Bonuses

211

70

70

Mex. Money, Propaganda to Influence Sens.

214

74

74

1934 Sen. Campaign Expends.

217

75

75

1938 Sen. Campaign Expends.

220

77

78

1942 Sen. Campaign Expends

223

79

79

1946 Sen. Campaign Expends

226

77

77

Investigate Farm Labor Shortages in West

229

75

79

Investigate Admin. of Civil Service System

232

69

70

Admin. of Flex. Tariff Provision by Tariff Commission

235

74

74

Admin. of Gov. of the Virgin Islands

238

71

73

Investigate the Alaska RR

241

69

69

The Alien Property Custodian's Office

244

63

63

Investigate Alleged Ship Trust Purchase Lobby

247

75

75

Investigate American Merchant Marine

250

68

68

Investigate the A.G.'s Alleged Failure to Prosecute Violators of Anti-Trust Laws

253

46

46

Discrepancies and Alterations in Books and Accounts of Tr. Dept.

256

78

78

Centraliz. of U.S. Heavy Industry

259

68

68

Charges Agst. Montana Sen. Wheeler

262

50

50

Investigate the Civil Service

265

63

63

Investigate the D.C. Excise Bd.

268

72

72

Effects of Depreciation of Foreign Currencies

271

74

79

Effects of Silver Purchase Act of 1934

274

67

67

Examining Div. of Civil Service Commission

277

77

79

Fuel Situation in Areas W. of the Miss. R.

280

68

69

Investigate the Internal Revenue Bureau

283

73

75

Investigate the Munitions Industry

286

77

79

Investigate the National Defense Program

289

77

77

Investigate the Old-Age Pension System

292

74

79

Investigate Wool Prod., Transp., Mkting.

295

66

66

Investigate D.C. Public School System

298

65

65

Investigate Strike on Washington Railway

301

73

73

Superintendent of the Shiloh Nat'l Park

304

61

62

Use of the 3rd Degree Ordeal by Officers or Employees of U.S.

307

67

67

Investigate the Veterans' Bureau

310

75

77

Investigate Unemployment and Relief

313

61

61

Investigate Wages and Prices of Commodities

316

70

71

Illegal Appts., Dismissals in Civil Service

319

50

51

Irrigation and Reclamation of Arid Lands

322

74

74

U.S. Land and Water Policies

325

52

52

Laws Concerning National Banks

328

62

62

H. Message on Impeachment of Judge Archibald

331

50

50

Methods of Business in the Exec. Depts.

334

53

60

National Banks

337

66

66

National Budget System

340

67

68

Nine Ft. Channel from Great Lakes to Gulf

343

67

67

U.S. Occup., Admin. of Haiti, Dom. Repub.

346

46

46

Infectious Diseases Among Animals

349

71

72

Post Office Leases

352

78

78

Post-War Economic Policy and Planning

355

52

53

Quadro-Centennial

358

67

67

Readjustment of Service Pay

361

66

66

Reconstruction and Production

364

67

67

Reforestation

367

51

52

Relations with Canada

370

74

76

Reorganization of Executive Agencies

373

51

52

Report of the Pacific Railroad Commission

376

50

50

Report of the Pacific Railway Commission

379

79

79

Roofs, Skylights Over Wings of Capitol

382

76

76

1940 Sen. Campaign Expends.

385

57

60

Standards, Wts., and Measures

388

48

49

Steel Producing Capacity for Navy

391

52

52

Stocks and Bonds Issued by D.C Inc. Cos.

394

76

79

Study Problems of Amer. Small Business

397

75

76

Taxation of Gov. Securities and Salaries

400

63

63

Telepost and Its Uses in the Post Office

403

47

49

Tenth Census

406

46

46

Tenth Census

409

50

58

Transportation and Sale of Meat Products

412

53

60

Trespassers on Indian Lands

415

72

72

Unemployment Insurance

418

52

54

Univ. of the U.S.

421

59

59

Ventilation and Acoustics

424

71

79

Wildlife Resources

427

47

60

Woman Suffrage

MODERN SENATE SELECT OR SPECIAL COMMITTEES, 80TH--101ST CONGRESSES

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

401

77

80

Investigating National Defense Prog. (Sp.)

402

79

82

Roofs and Skylights over the Senate (Sp.)

403

80

80

Study Probs. of Am. Small Business (Sp.)

404

81

97

Small Business (became Standing)

405

82

82

Organized Crime in Interst. Commerce (Sp.)

406

83

83

Study Rates of Compensation of Certain Officers and Employees of Sen. (Sp.)

407

83

83

Study Censure Charges [agst. Sen. McCarthy]

408

83

83

Mail Cover of Mail of Senators

409

84

85

Disarmament (Sp.)

410

84

85

Senate Reception Room (Sp.)

411

84

84

Investigate Attempt to Influence Vote of Senator Case (R-SD)

412

84

84

Investigate Attempts to Improperly Influence Senators

413

84

85

Foreign Assistance by U.S. Gov. (Sp.)

414

85

86

Improper Activities in Labor-Mgement. Field

415

85

85

Astronautics and Space Exploration (Sp.)

416

85

86

Preservation, Hist. Records of Sen. (Sp.)

417

86

86

National Water Resources

418

86

86

Unemployment Problems (Sp.)

419

87

---

Aging (Sp.)

420

87

87

National Fuels Study (Sp.)

421

89

94

Standards and Conduct

422

89

90

Organization of Congress (Sp.)

423

90

90

Unmet Basic Needs Among the [U.S.] People

424

91

94

Nutrition and Human Needs

425

91

92

Equal Educational Opportunity

426

92

94

Termination of the Nat'l Emergency (Sp.)

427

92

92

Study Secret and Confidential Gov. Docs.

428

93

93

Secret and Confidential Gov. Docs. (Special and ad hoc)

429

93

93

Pres. Campaign Activities ("Watergate")

430

93

93

Study Gov. Ops., Intell. Activities

431

94

95

Study Sen. Committee System I (Stevenson)

432

94

---

Intelligence (Permanent)

433

95

95

Official Conduct (Special)

434

96

---

Ethics (Permanent)

435

95

---

Indian Affairs (Permanent)

436

96

96

Special Subcomm. on Activities of Indivs. Rep. Interests of Foreign Govs.

437

97

97

Study Law Enforcement Undercover Activities of Components of DOJ

438

98

98

Security and Cooperation in Europe (Sp.)

439

98

98

Study Senate Committee System II (Quayle)

440

99

99

Impeachment of Judge H.E. Claiborne (Sp.)

441

99

99

Impeachment of Judge Alcee Hastings (Sp.)

442

99

99

Impeachment of Judge Walter Nixon (Sp.)

443

100

100

Secret Mil. Assistance to Iran and the Nicaraguan opposition

444

102

--

POW-MIA Affairs

 

JOINT COMMITTEES OF THE MODERN CONGRESS (1947-1992)

Code

Congress Established

Congress Abolished

Committee Name

500

9

---

Library

501

29

---

Printing

502

69

94

Internal Revenue Taxation (renamed 503)

503

94

---

Taxation

504

77

93

Reduction of Non-Essential Fed. Expends.

505

77

91

Disposition of Executive Papers

506

79

84

Economic Report (renamed 507)

507

84

---

Economic [Joint Economic Committee]

508

80

95

Atomic Energy

509

81

81

Legislative Budget

510

80

81

Labor-Management Relations

511

80

80

Housing

512

80

81

Foreign Economic Cooperation

513

80

---

Inaugural Ceremonies

514

80

80

Trust Territories of the Pacific

515

81

92

Navaho-Hopi Indian Administration

516

81

95

Defense Production

517

82

83

Railroad Retirement Legislation

518

82

82

Postal Service

519

82

91

Immigration and Nationality Policy

520

84

89

Construction of Bldg. for Museum of History and Tech. for Smithsonian

521

85

86

Washington Metropolitan Problems

522

89

89

Organization of Congress

523

91

95

Congressional Operations

524

92

93

Study Budget Control

525

94

94

Arrangements for Commemoration of Bicen.

526

100

100

Deficit Reduction

527

102

---

Organization of the Congress

CHAMBER CHARACTER(1)

Congressional chamber of committee:

1 House of Representatives only [HR]

2 Senate only [SN]

3 Joint: House Members [JH]

4 Joint: Senate Members [JS]

 

PARTY NUMBER

Member's party identification as determined by Kenneth C. Martis (1989). Following Martis, party codes are provided for each House member for the 1st through the 24th Congresses. For the 25th through 100th Congresses, multiple party codes are provided only for those House members for whom various sources attribute conflicting party affiliations. For information on how these party codes were formulated, see Martis (1989), sections 2 and 3, pp. 4-22. For information on the party codes on individual members, see Martis (1989), parts 3 and 4, pp. 243-496. Martis's party codes for some House members may include some additional information or notes, included as footnotes to the tables, which are not reflected in this database. Dashes or missing entries in the Martis tables are indicated in this file by zeros or missing entries.

1 Federalist

9 Jefferson Republican

10 Anti-Federalist

11 Jefferson Democrat

13 Democrat-Republican

22 Adams

25 National Republican

26 Anti-Masonic

29 Whig

34 Whig and Democrat

37 Constitutional Unionist

40 Anti-Democrat and States Rights

41 Anti-Jackson Democrat

43 Calhoun Nullifier

44 Nullifier

46 States Rights

48 States Rights Whig

100 Democrat

101 Jackson Democrat

103 Democrat and Anti-Mason

104 Van Buren Democrat

105 Conservative Democrat

108 Anti-Lecompton Democrat

110 Popular Sovereignty Democrat

112 Conservative

114 Readjuster

117 Readjuster Democrat

118 Tariff for Revenue Democrat

119 United Democrat

200 Republican

202 Union Conservative

203 Unconditional Unionist

206 Unionist

208 Liberal Republican

212 United Republican

213 Progressive Republican

214 Non-Partisan and Republican

215 War Democrat

300 Free Soil

301 Free Soil Democrat

302 Free Soil Whig

304 Anti-Slavery

308 Free Soil American and Democrat

310 American

326 National Greenbacker

328 Independent

329 Ind. Democrat

331 Ind. Republican

333 Ind. Republican-Democrat

336 Anti-Monopolist

337 Anti-Monopoly Democrat

340 Populist

341 People's

347 Prohibitionist

353 Ind. Silver Republican

354 Silver Republican

355 Union

356 Union Labor

370 Progressive

380 Socialist

401 Fusionist

402 Liberal

403 Law and Order

522 American Labor

537 Farmer-Labor

555 Jackson

603 Ind. Whig

1060 Silver

1061 Emancipationist

1111 Liberty

1116 Conservative Republican

1275 Anti-Jackson

1346 Jackson Republican

3333 Opposition

4000 Anti-Administration

4444 Union

5000 Pro-Administration

6000 Crawford Federalist

6666 Crawford Republican

7000 Jackson Federalist

7777 Crawford Republican

8000 Adams-Clay Federalist

8888 Adams-Clay Republican

9000 Unknown

9999 Unknown

 

TYPE NUMBER

Type of committee:

1 standing committees

2 select committees.

3 joint committees: standing and select

 

NAME CHARACTER(25)

Name of Member. The full last name appears, and as much of the first name that would fit within 25 characters. For almost every member, this variable contains the complete first and last name. In general, it will not contain the middle initial. However, if a full middle name appeared in the Senate Journal, it was included (e.g., Jim Bob Smith).

It should be noted that the field FULL_NAME in the Member table serves as the standard name variable in the database. While this and other fields contain members' names, they differ in format and may not be consistent with each other.

 

PARTY_STATUS NUMBER

Mode of committee appointment by party. This variable distinguishes between original appointees to committees and those appointed during a Congress or session to fill a vacancy.

1 Maj: Majority party member

2 Min: Minority party member

3 3PI: Other party member

4 MjA: Majority party addition

5 MnA: Minority party addition

6 MjR: Majority party replacement

7 MnR: Minority party replacement

8 3PA: Third party additions or replacements

9 Del: Delegate or Resident Commissioner

0 Inapplicable: no committee assignment

 

RANK NUMBER

Rank of committee member within party. This is defined here as the order on the committee list specified in the appointment resolution. For example, 02 indicates the second-ranked member on the committee from the member's party, 10 indicates the 10th ranked, and so on.

 

MONTH_APPOINT NUMBER

Month in which a committee member appointed. In the House, committee appointments in the House were made by session rather than by Congress from the 1st through 35th Congresses. In the Senate, this practice continued through the 45th Congress. Since the 36th Congress in the House and the 46th Congress in the Senate, regular appointments have been made for the entire two years of a given Congress.

For a overviews about changing House and Senate rules on committees, see Deering and Smith (1997), Haynes (1938), McConachie (1898), and Nelson (1993).

 

DAY_APPOINT NUMBER

Day on which a committee member was appointed.

 

YEAR_APPOINT NUMBER

Year in which a committee member was appointed. Together with the two preceding variables, it indicates the complete date on which a committee member was appointed.

 

MONTH_TERM NUMBER

Month in which a member was terminated from committee membership.

 

DAY_TERM NUMBER

Day in which a member was terminated from committee membership.

 

YEAR_TERM NUMBER

Year in which a member was terminated from committee membership.

 

Data About Congressional Elections

The Election Table

CAND_ID CHARACTER(11)

Candidate number. It is composed of the last three digits of the year of the election, the office number (see below), the state number (see below), the district number, and the first three letters of the candidateís last name, if the name is present.

 

STATE NUMBER(2)

State in which election took place.

00 Not categorized

New England:

01 Connecticut

02 Maine

03 Massachusetts

04 New Hampshire

05 Rhode Island

06 Vermont

Middle Atlantic:

11 Delaware

12 New Jersey

13 New York

14 Pennsylvania

East North Central:

21 Illinois

22 Indiana

23 Michigan

24 Ohio

25 Wisconsin

West North Central:

31 Iowa

32 Kansas

33 Minnesota

34 Missouri

35 Nebraska

36 North Dakota

37 South Dakota

Solid South:

40 Virginia

41 Alabama

42 Arkansas

43 Florida

44 Georgia

45 Louisiana

46 Mississippi

47 North Carolina

48 South Carolina

49 Texas

Border States:

51 Kentucky

52 Maryland

53 Oklahoma

54 Tennessee

55 Washington, D.C.

56 West Virginia

Mountain States:

61 Arizona

62 Colorado

63 Idaho

64 Montana

65 Nevada

66 New Mexico

67 Utah

68 Wyoming

Pacific States:

71 California

72 Oregon

73 Washington

Noncontinental States

81 Alaska

82 Hawaii

-1 MD: missing data

 

YEAR NUMBER(4)

Year in which a congressional election was held. Congressional elections were not held on the same date until 1960, despite a law passed by Congress in 1872 mandating that all states hold congressional elections on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, beginning with the 45th Congress. Before the 45th Congress, elections were held on a different date in each state over a period of 12 to 18 months. For example, there were nearly an equal number of congressional elections in 1858 and 1859. However, by 1884 there were three states that did not conform to the 1872 law and by 1914 Maine was the only nonconforming state. For an excellent discussion of election dates, see Dubin (1998), pp. x-xi.

 

OFFICE NUMBER(1)

Congressional office for which election held. Senatorial classes refer to the constitutionally mandated practice of holding biennial elections for only a third of the Senate at a time. Each Senate seat is designated to be contested during designated elections. Should a Senate seat be vacated during a term, an election is held to fill it only for the rest of the term, not for the regular six-year Senate term. See Congressional Quarterly's Guide to Congress, 4th ed. (1991), p. 76, for a brief explanation of the development of Senate classes.

3 United States House of Representatives

4 United States Senator, 1st Class

5 United States Senator, 2nd Class

6 United States Senator, 3rd Class

 

DISTRICT NUMBER(3)

District represented by House member. This variable includes codes for standard single member districts, at-large districts, and districts in which the member was elected on a general ticket. The district number itself is used as the value for single member districts as well as any so-called "plural districts." All but seven elections until 1970 had at least two House members elected from at-large districts, that is statewide elections. Multi-member districts were also used from the 3rd to the 25th Congresses. These plural districts are not distinguished by a special code. However, they can be identified by the presence of several Representatives, all regularly elected, who have the same district number. See the discussion of multi-member districts and at-large elections in Congressional Quarterly's Guide to Congress (1994, 3rd ed., p. 916).

The code values for the single member and plural districts range from 1 to 52, inclusive.

0 Senate election.

01-52 Single Member and Plural Districts

95-97 Seats that were elected at large for a specific seat. If only one such seat was in a given state, it was coded as a 97; the second such seat was coded as a 96; and the third such seat was coded as a 95.

98 At-large elections in which the top "n" candidates win office, where "n" is the number of seats apportioned to the given state.

99 Unknown or not ascertained

ELECTYPE CHARACTER(1)

Type of election. General elections refer to those elections in which voters chose a new House. Special elections refer to elections held to fill vacancies. See the discussion of multi-member districts and at-large elections in Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (1994, 3rd ed., p. 916). All but seven elections until 1970 had at least two House members elected from at-large districts, that is, statewide elections. Multi-member districts were also used from the 3rd to the 25th Congresses.

G general election

S special election

M multi-member district election

W missing data

0 missing data

9 missing data

 

VOTE NUMBER(8)

Total number of votes a candidate received in the election of record. Vote totals were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988."

 

PARTY NUMBER(4)

Party of member in election. Party identifications were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988." See ICPSR_PARTY in the SERVES table for codes.

 

CONGRESS NUMBER(3)

Number of the specific Congress. The First Congress is numbered one, the Hundredth Congress is numbered 100, etc.

 

TOTAL NUMBER(8)

Total number of votes received by all of the candidates in the election of record. Totals were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988."

 

CANDS NUMBER(2)

The number of candidates in the election. Numbers were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988."

 

PERCENT1 NUMBER(5)

The percentage of the vote received by the winning candidate. Data were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988."

 

PERCENT2 NUMBER(5)

The percentage of the vote received by the second-place candidate. Data were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988."

 

MARGIN NUMBER(5)

The margin of electoral victory (PERCENT1-PERCENT2). Data were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988."

 

CANDPCT NUMBER(5)

The percentage of the vote received by the candidate. Data were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988."

 

PCTDIFF NUMBER(5)

The difference between the winning candidate's vote percentage and the vote percentage of the candidate of record (for example, this variable would have a value of zero for the winning candidate). Data were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988."

 

OUTCOME NUMBER(1)

Electoral outcome. Data were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988."

1 candidate won election

0 candidate lost election

9 missing data

INCUMB NUMBER(1)

Incumbency status of a candidate. Data were taken from Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections, 3rd ed. (1994), and Dubin (1998).

0 not an incumbent

1 incumbent won (having won previous general election)

2 incumbent lost (having won previous general election)

3 candidate won (having won previous special election)

4 candidate lost (having won previous special election)

 

NAME CHARACTER(64)

Name of the candidate of record (last, first, and middle initial when available). Names were taken from ICPSR 0002, "Candidate Name and Constituency Totals, 1788-1988."

 

Data About Roll Call Votes

The Rollcall Table

These data are taken from the codebooks for Keith T. Poole and Howard L. Rosenthal, ICPSR 9822, "United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records, 1789-1987: Reformatted Data." These codebooks include descriptive information for each roll call vote taken in the House and Senate from the 1st to the 100th congresses.

ROLLCALL NUMBER

This is the same as the ROLLCALL field in the RCText table.

CITATION CHARACTER(29)

A citation for the source of the roll call information. Typical data would be "A-1- -50 J 1-1-42A".

 

BILLNO CHARACTER(10)

If the vote resulted in a numbered house or senate resolution, it is included here. Other codes are used for house, senate or joint resolutions.

ROLL_CALL_DATE CHARACTER(18)

The date of the roll call, given as month, day and year (month names are abbreviated).

CHAMBER CHARACTER(1)

The same codes are used as the CHAMBER field in the RCText table.

CONGRESS NUMBER

Number of congress from 1 to 100.

CONGRESS_SESSION NUMBER

The same codes are used as the CONGRESS_SESSION field in the RCText table.

SEQNUM NUMBER

A sequence number from the codebook that numbers each vote within each chamber code. That is, E, S, H and I votes are numbered separately with these numbers.

YEAVOTES NUMBER

The number of yes votes as given in the codebook. It may not match the total number of votes as calculated from summing the votes of individual members.

NAYVOTES NUMBER

The number of no votes as given in the codebook. It may not match the total number of votes as calculated from summing the votes of individual members.

SPNAME CHARACTER(20)

The name of the member calling for the vote, if given in the codebook.

ICPNUM NUMBER

A separate sequential numbering used only for votes in the senate which numbers all senate votes sequentially regardless of type.

The Issue Table

CONGRESS NUMBER(3)

Number of Congress. For example, the First Congress would be number 1.

 

ROLLCALL NUMBER(5)

Roll call numbers for every vote recorded in an unrevised version of ICPSR 0004, "United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records," including those for public bills, private bills, and resolutions. For more information on the roll calls used, see http://k7moa.gsia.cmu.edu/page2c.htm for the House roll calls and http://k7moa.gsia.cmu.edu/page2d.htm for the Senate roll calls.

 

CHAMBER CHARACTER(1)

Chamber of bill origin.

H House

S Senate

 

CLAUSEN NUMBER(2)

Policy issue codes indicating the categories of policy issues developed by Clausen (1973). The description of the codes below is borrowed from Poole and Rosenthal (1997), p. 259. See Appendix C of Poole and Rosenthal (1997), pp. 259-262, for coding methods.

1 Government management: environmental control; government regulation of business; natural resource management; government ownership of business; government control of the economy; budget balancing; tax policy; interest rates; management of the bureaucracy

2 Social welfare: social security; public housing; urban renewal; labor regulation; education; urban affairs; employment opportunities and rewards; welfare; Medicare; unemployment; minimum wage; legal services

3 Agriculture: price supports and subsidies; commodity control; acreage limitations

4 Civil liberties: civil rights; equality; criminal procedure; privacy; guarantees of the Bill of Rights; slavery; Hatch Act

5 Foreign and defense policy: international policy; foreign aid; aid to international organizations; armament policy; defense procurement; international trade; military pensions

6 Miscellaneous policy: unclassifiable or unidentifiable votes; all votes concerned with the internal organization of Congress; procedural motions

 

PELTZ1 NUMBER(2)

Policy issue codes indicating the categories of policy issues developed by Peltzman (1984). See Peltzman (1984), p. 198, for a fuller description of the categories. See Appendix C of Poole and Rosenthal (1997), pp. 259-262, for coding methods.

1 Budget General Interest: debt limit; budget targets; revenue sharing; unemployment insurance; tax rates; continuing appropriations; etc.

2 Budget Special Interest: authorization/appropriations for agencies, departments; public works; subsidized housing; National Science Foundations; parks; food stamps; etc.

3 Regulation General Interest: general tariffs; minimum wage; gasoline rationing; auto emissions; water pollution; etc.

4 Regulation Special Interest: union regulations; coal mine regulations; export/import controls; fish and wildlife; etc.

5 Domestic Social Policy: abortion; school prayer; busing; criminal code and federal courts; immigration; gun control; Hatch Act; veterans' preference; Legal Services Corporation; voting rights; slavery; etc.

61 Defense Policy Budget: authorization/appropriations for military; military pensions.

71 Defense Policy Resolutions: number of Army divisions; duties of officers; etc.

62 Foreign Policy Budget: authorization/appropriations for State Department and international organizations; etc.

72 Foreign Policy Resolutions: condemn/thank foreign nations; Taiwan relations; disapproval of apartheid; etc.

8 Government Organization: setting up new agencies/bureaus/commissions; civil service regulations; government reorganization; Federal Election Commission; constitutional amendments; admission of states; census; etc.

9 Internal Organization: election of House speaker; party ratios on committees; creating committees; procedural rules; disputed elections; congressional pay; etc.

10 Indian Affairs: Indian treaties; appropriations for Indian Department; Indian lands and reservations; etc.

11 D.C.: all votes dealing with the District of Columbia.

 

PELTZ2 NUMBER(2)

Policy issue codes indicating the categories of policy issues developed by Peltzman (1984). A code of 0 indicates that a roll call fell within a single Peltzman issue code, and that issue code is provided under Peltz1. Roll calls received both a Peltz1 and Peltz2 codes when they spanned categories. For example, the issue of abortion in Washington, D.C. would receive Peltzman codes of 11 for D.C. and 5 for Social Policy. Peltz2 issue code values are the same as Peltz1 issue code values. See Peltzman (1984), p. 198, for a fuller description of the categories. See Appendix C of Poole and Rosenthal (1997), pp. 259-262, for coding methods.

0 Inapplicable: Roll call issue code contained within a single Peltzman issue code, which is provided under Peltz1

Other numbers: See values under Peltz1

ISSUE1 NUMBER(2)

Issue codes developed by Poole and Rosenthal (1997). See Appendix C of Poole and Rosenthal (1997), pp. 259-262, for coding methods.

1 Gasoline rationing/allocation

2 Fish & Wildlife

3 Tax rates

4 Budget resolution

5 Women's Equality

6 South Africa/Rhodesia

7 Amnesty (all wars)

8 Unemployment/Jobs

9 Emergency Fuel Assistance

10 Union Regulation/Davis-Bacon/Situs Picketing

11 Coal Mining Regulation/Strip Mining/Black Lung

12 Arms Control

13 U. N.

14 Panama Canal

15 Food Stamps/Food Programs

16 Human Rights

17 Pollution and Environmental Protection

18 Welfare

19 OSHA

20 Civil Rights/Desegregation/Busing/Affirmative Action

21 Abortion/Care of deformed newborns

22 Homosexuality

23 B-1 Bomber

24 Shipping/Maritime

25 Agriculture

26 Minimum Wage

27 Breeder Reactor

28 Neutron Bomb

29 Consumer Protection Agency/Consumer Protection

30 Taiwan (1979-80)

31 SST

32 MX Missile

33 School Prayer

34 Nuclear Power

35 Selective Service (The Draft)

36 Vietnam War

37 Public Lands

38 Impeachments & Investigations

39 Alien and Sedition Laws

40 Religion

41 Election of House Officers

42 Civil Service and Patronage

43 Election of the Speaker of the House

44 Presidential Impeachment

45 Education

46 Parks and Conservation

47 Banking and Finance

48 Campaign Contributions/House Ethics/Lobbying/Campaign Laws

49 Electoral Votes

50 Tariffs

51 Constitutional Amendments

52 Slavery

53 National Bank

54 Disputed Elections to Congress

55 Military Pensions/Veterans Benefits

56 Mediterranean Pirates

57 Whiskey Rebellion

58 Treaties

59 Immigration/Naturalization

60 Public Works

61 Voting Rights

62 Ratio of Representatives to Population

63 Congressional Pay and Benefits

64 States Rights vs. Federal Government

65 Supreme Court

66 Humanitarian Assistance (foreign)

67 Exchange Rates

68 Nullification/Secession/Reconstruction

69 Temperance and Liquor

70 U.S. Currency

71 Science and Technology

72 Workplace conditions/8 hour day

73 Minorities (non-black)

74 Judiciary

75 Impeachment of President

76 Public Safety

77 Interstate Commerce/Anti-trust/Restraint of Commerce

78 Children (aid, infant mortality, etc.)

79 WWI

80 Public Health

81 Narcotics

82 Firearms

83 Radio/Television/Motion Pictures/Telecommunications

84 Airlines/Airports/Airline Industry

85 Peace Movements/Pacifism/Anti-Military

86 Social Security

87 Communists/Communism/Unamerican Activities

88 Housing/Housing Programs/Rent Control

89 Price Control

90 Debt Ceilings

91 Nuclear Weapons

92 CIA/Spying/Intelligence

93 Korean War

94 Space Exploration/NASA

95 Handicapped

96 Energy

97 Central America

98 Iran

99 Railroads

POOLE & ROSENTHAL ISSUE CODES SORTED ALPHABETICALLY

21 Abortion/Care of deformed newborns

25 Agriculture

84 Airlines/Airports/Airline Industry

39 Alien and Sedition Laws

7 Amnesty (all wars)

12 Arms Control

23 B-1 Bomber

47 Banking and Finance

27 Breeder Reactor

4 Budget resolution

92 CIA/Spying/Intelligence

48 Campaign Contributions/House Ethics/Lobbying/Campaign Laws

97 Central America

78 Children (aid, infant mortality, etc.)

20 Civil Rights/Desegregation/Busing/Affirmative Action

42 Civil Service and Patronage

11 Coal Mining Regulation/Strip Mining/Black Lung

87 Communists/Communism/Unamerican Activities

63 Congressional Pay and Benefits

51 Constitutional Amendments

29 Consumer Protection Agency/Consumer Protection

90 Debt Ceilings

54 Disputed Elections to Congress

45 Education

41 Election of House Officers

43 Election of the Speaker of the House

49 Electoral Votes

9 Emergency Fuel Assistance

96 Energy

67 Exchange Rates

82 Firearms

2 Fish & Wildlife

15 Food Stamps/Food Programs

1 Gasoline rationing/allocation

95 Handicapped

22 Homosexuality

88 Housing/Housing Programs/Rent Control

16 Human Rights

66 Humanitarian Assistance (foreign)

59 Immigration/Naturalization

75 Impeachment of President

38 Impeachments & Investigations

77 Interstate Commerce/Anti-trust/Restraint of Commerce

98 Iran

74 Judiciary

93 Korean War

32 MX Missile

56 Mediterranean Pirates

55 Military Pensions/Veterans Benefits

26 Minimum Wage

73 Minorities (non-black)

81 Narcotics

53 National Bank

28 Neutron Bomb

34 Nuclear Power

91 Nuclear Weapons

68 Nullification/Secession/Reconstruction

19 OSHA

14 Panama Canal

46 Parks and Conservation

85 Peace Movements/Pacifism/Anti-Military

17 Pollution and Environmental Protection

44 Presidential Impeachment

89 Price Controls

80 Public Health

37 Public Lands

76 Public Safety

60 Public Works

83 Radio/Television/Motion Pictures/Telecommunications

99 Railroads

62 Ratio of Representatives to Population

40 Religion

31 SST

33 School Prayer

71 Science and Technology

35 Selective Service (The Draft)

24 Shipping/Maritime

52 Slavery

86 Social Security

6 South Africa/Rhodesia

94 Space Exploration/NASA

64 States Rights vs. Federal Government

65 Supreme Court

30 Taiwan (1979-80)

50 Tariffs

3 Tax rates

69 Temperance and Liquor

58 Treaties

13 U. N.

70 U.S. Currency

8 Unemployment/Jobs

10 Union Regulation/Davis-Bacon/Situs Picketing

36 Vietnam War

61 Voting Rights

79 WWI

18 Welfare

57 Whiskey Rebellion

5 Women's Equality

72 Workplace conditions/8 hour day

 

ISSUE2 NUMBER(2)

Issue codes developed by Poole and Rosenthal (1997). Issue2 contains the same coding categories as Issue1. Roll calls received two issue codes when they spanned categories. See Appendix C of Poole and Rosenthal (1997), pp. 259-262, for coding methods.

0 Inapplicable: Roll call issue code contained within a single Poole & Rosenthal issue code, which is provided under Issue1

The RCText Table

This table contains descriptive text for each roll call vote taken in the House and Senate.

ROLLCALL NUMBER

Roll call number from ICPSR 9822. Senate roll calls begin with 1 each congress, while house roll calls begin with 11.

 

LINENUM NUMBER

Integer counter for line number. Each description of a roll call in the original codebooks for ICPSR 0004,"United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records," came in the form of an 80 character card image. The sequence begins with 3 and can range up to 32.

CHAMBER CHARACTER(1)

Chamber of roll call.

H House

S Senate

E Senate (treaties and other votes in which the Senate was advisory to the executive)

I Senate (impeachment votes)

 

CONGRESS NUMBER

Number of Congress, which ranges from 1 to 100.

CONGRESS_SESSION NUMBER

Session of Congress. Regular sessions are coded "1," "2," and "3." Special sessions are coded "0." In a few Congresses, there were two special sessions. In those cases, the second special session was coded "9."

 

SEQNUM NUMBER

Sequence number of roll call vote from the codebooks of ICPSR 9822.

 

ROLL_CALL_TEXT CHARACTER(70)

Text of codebook for ICPSR 0004, "United States Congressional Roll Call Voting Records," with some revisions by Keith T. Poole.

The Votes Table

MEMBER_ID NUMBER

Six-digit ICPSR ID number of the member. The same as the MEMBER_ID field in the Committee and Member tables.

 

CONGRESS NUMBER

Congress in which the roll call vote was taken. Values range from 1 to 100l

 

CHAMBER_CLASS NUMBER

The same coding as the CHAMBER_CLASS field in the Serves table.

 

ROLLCALL NUMBER

Rollcall number. The same as the ROLLCALL field in the RCText table.

 

VOTE NUMBER(8)

The vote cast by the member on the roll call.

0. NOT A MEMBER AT TIME OF VOTE

1. YES

2. PAIRED OR ANNOUNCED YES

5. PAIRED OR ANNOUNCED NO

6. NO

8. PRESENT

9. NOT VOTING OR NOT ASCERTAINED

There are special cases, such as the election of officers of each chamber, which are not coded as above but such deviations are noted in the RCText records where they occur.

Data About Presidential Requests

The Request Table

This table contains 12,505 presidential requests for legislative action from 1789-1992, compiled from the following sources:

Washington through Wilson, first term:

James P. Richardson, ed. A Compilation of Messages and Papers of the Presidents.

This compilation of messages sent by Presidents to the Congress was authorized by Congress, first published in 1897, and periodically updated until 1917. We used the 1917 edition, which goes through President Wilson's first term of office. The version held by many libraries that was made available on compact disc by the CDex Information Group is slightly earlier, and includes messages through January 1911. The page numbers in our edition seem to be comparable to the ones on the compact disc, but the volume numbers are not. Earlier print editions restart each volume with page 1. A user who wishes to use the primary source material in therefore may have to look for the message by date. When doing so, the user should be advised that Messages and Papers sometimes groups messages by type instead of putting them in chronological sequence.

Wilson, second term through Coolidge:

From 1917 through 1929, the Congressional Record is the only official source of presidential messages to Congress. These messages were compiled for this project. We believe it to be the only such compilation of messages for these years.

Hoover; Truman through Bush:

Public Papers of the Presidents. Washington : Federal Register Division, National Archives and Records Service,General Services Administration ; For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office.

Franklin D. Roosevelt:

The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, compiled by Samuel I. Rosenman, New York, Russell & Russell [1969, c1938-1950]

DECISION RULES:

1. To be included, the request must appear in a message from the

President to Congress, published in one of the above sources.

Requests or recommendations delivered privately, verbally, or

through an intermediary (including official, approved

Administration requests from a Cabinet Secretary) are not

included.

The only exception in this collection is President Jefferson's request of 30 March 1808 for sweeping powers to enforce the embargo acts. This was included because of its importance, and because historians agree that this was Jefferson's direct recommendation. Source citations for this request are given in the table called Reqtext. The request number is 0100019.

2. Requests for Congress NOT to act are excluded. Among these are vetoes and proposals subject to a legislative veto, such as executive branch reorganization plans.

3. Treaties are included if, and only if, they meet the publication tests above.

4. All nominations are excluded.

5. Appropriation requests are generally excluded, unless they represent new policy initiatives. The request, in that case is the policy initiative rather than the specific dollar amount.

6. Discrete requests will be listed separately, even if they form

part of an integral policy package.

CAUTION: What counts as a discrete request often will depend upon the idiosyncratic speaking and writing patterns of individual Presidents. For example, a President who said "pass the legislative package sent to you by my cabinet secretary" will have one request recorded in our file. If the same President had said, "pass a package with the following ten items", ten requests would be recorded. Similarly, ten requests would be recorded if the President said "pass the package described in this fact sheet" and the fact sheet is included in Public Papers. The problem from a research point of view is that the decision of whether to include a fact sheet in Public Papers is a decision made by a records manager, has no consistency across administrations, and says nothing about the importance of the material in the fact sheet to the personal goals of the President. All of these matters largely affect modern Presidents, but for these Presidents it can be quite tricky and misleading to compare different Presidents on the basis of the numbers of their requests.

By implication, the same phenomena also make it hard to compare Presidents' whole records, one to another, by using anything like a "success rate." Assume the following facts: (1) A President would like Congress to pass a package with ten items. (2) Congress enacts a law that accomplishes the basic thrust of the President's goals, but with only six of the ten specific items. Under these circumstances, the President who said nothing about the specifics, but transmitted them through a cabinet secretary, would have a 100% "success rate" for this issue. In contrast, the President who mentioned the same ten items in a speech, or a Public Papers document, would only have a 60% success rate. Under the terms of this hypothetical, however, both Presidents in fact would have achieved the same end result.

7. Beginning with Truman (the first President to leave office at the end of a term after the 20th Amendment), presidential requests made after the last day of the final congressional session in that president's term are not included, with the exception of treaties.

8. For the years during which Congressional Quarterly published its "boxscore", we began with CQ's list of requests and eliminated ones that did not meet the above criteria. Our survey of the public papers for these years occurred on a second pass through the material. We started with the CQ boxcores because we wanted coders to become familiar with them and develop similar judgment standards as they worked on earlier and later Presidents.

PRESIDENT CHARACTER(4)

An abbreviation of each president's name. The abbreviations used here are: WASH, ADAM, JEFF, MAD, MONR, QADM, JACK, VANB, (none from William Henry Harrison), TYLR, POLK, TAYL, FILL, PIER, BUCH, LINC, AJHN, USGT, HAYE, GARF, ARTH, CLV1, BHAR, CLV2, MKIN, TR, TAFT, WW, HARD, COOL, HOOV, FDR, TRUM, IKE, JFK, LBJ, NIX, FORD, CART, RR, BUSH.

REQUEST_NUMBER NUMBER

This is a seven digit unique identifying number for each presidential request. The first three digits represent the Congress during which the request was made. The last four is a sequence number for the requests. Requests made after the adjournment of a preceding Congress and before the convening of the next are assigned to the preceding Congress.

The sequence numbers are more or less chronological, but not exactly so. We did not concern ourselves about the order because the file includes a separate field for the date to permit sorting by date. In general, we followed the order in which requests were published in our source material. This normally is chronological for Public Papers and less so for Messages and Papers. For 1954-74, we followed the order of CQ's boxscores, which list the requests by subject area.

The sequence numbers also were affected by our corrections. Andrew Rudalevidge (then a Ph.D. candidate at Harvard University) made a sweep through Public Papers for requests for 1949-1992. This careful error checking was particularly important for the years when the original compilation was drawn initially from CQ instead of from Public Papers. It resulted in our dropping some proposals and adding others. The dropped results led to occasional numerical gaps in the sequence; the newly found requests were added to the end of each Congress, even if they came early in the first year of a Congress. Again, the user who wishes the requests in order should use the date field to sort them.

DATE CHARACTER(8)

The date of the request in the format MMDDYYYY

DESCRIPTION CHARACTER(255)

A summary description of each request.

REPEAT_REQUEST CHARACTER(255)

If a President repeats the same request in more than one year, this field lists the seven-digit request number for each repetition of the same request (except the current one). Note that if the request is repeated during the same calendar year, or during the same session of a Congress, only one request is listed. The repeats refer to repeats across different years. In the files linking requests to votes, the votes are tied to the last request before the vote. Repeats are not listed across Presidents, even for a Vice-President who becomes President in the middle of a Congress.

Note that occasionally, one repeat will incorporate several previous requests. This might happen, for example, if President's State of the Union Address urges Congress to "enact the package I introduced last year."

The field is reserved for repetitions of unfulfilled requests. If a new law is passed that partially fills a past request, with the President's approval, and the President seeks another law on the same or a closely related subject, the subsequent item is treated as a new request.

MESSAGE CHARACTER(80)

A short descriptive name for the message or other paper in which the request appeared.

CITATION CHARACTER(80)

The name of the source, volume number and page.

The Rollreq Table

This files identifies roll call votes that we judged, after reading the Congressional Record and other documents, to have been votes on the same point as that of a previous presidential request made by the same President as the one in office at the time of the vote. Every one of the 12,105 requests from Presidents Washington through Reagan was examined to see if it could be matched with a roll call vote. President Bush's requests were not matched because our roll call votes only extend through the 100th Congress.

For a vote to be used, we had to make the judgment that a yes or no vote could fairly be described as a vote for or against the position the president expressed in the request, and that the President continued to adhere to the position stated in the request. There were many times when a vote was clearly on the topic of the request but did not meet our requirements. For example, if Congress had to vote on an amendment that significantly cut funding for something the President requested, but still preserved a non-trivial level of support, and if the President did not clearly state a position on the vote, then we did not include the vote because we had no basis for knowing whether the President would have supported the position as a compromise or would have seen it as an unwanted cut. Our general rule was, "when in doubt, leave it out."

Votes were linked to the most recent past request to which they appear to be responsive. Users therefore may have to use the "REPEAT_REQUEST" field in the Request file to reach all votes on a given subject. Even within a single Congress, a President may have repeated a request from one year to the next, and the bill may be passed by one chamber in one session and the other chamber in the next. If the most recent request was from a previous Congress, we looked for evidence that the President still considered it to be alive.

This file contains 5,966 records from Washington through Reagan, more than a quarter of which occurred during Lyndon Johnson's administration. The number for each President is as follows: WASH (30), ADAM (30), JEFF (117), MAD (120), MONR (90), QADM (96), JACK (148), VANB (103), TYLR (91), POLK (95), TAYL (18), FILL (37), PIER (70), BUCH (93), LINC (88), AJHN (16), USGT (73), HAYE (21), GARF (0), ARTH (52), CLV1 (35), BHAR (59), CLV2 (24), MKIN (40), TR (69), TAFT

(51), WW (176), HARD (41), COOL (63), HOOV (44), FDR (535), TRUM (182), IKE (741), JFK (490), LBJ (1,666), NIX (245), FORD (107), CART (466), RR (438).

For the years since 1954, these votes are generally a subset of the votes that make up Congressional Quarterly's "Presidential Position" votes. Broadly speaking, CQ's votes includes (1) votes on issues that were initiated by Congress, on which the President subsequently take a position, and (2) ones on the request precedes congressional action. Our votes generally correspond to the second of these two sets. Occasionally, we have included votes during these years on which CQ did not record a presidential position. Generally, these were uncontroversial votes on minor treaties.

Note that the structure of this file makes it a "many to many" file: A single request may produce many votes. Conversely, a single vote may be responsive to many requests. The numbers listed above, therefore, refer neither to requests nor votes, but to the number of occasions on which we found a linkage between a request and a vote.

REQUEST_NUMBER NUMBER

The same as the REQUEST_NUMBER field in the Request table.

CHAMBER CHARACTER(1)

H, S or E, for House, Senate or Executive Calendar votes in the Senate.

CONGRESS NUMBER

The number of the Congress in which the vote (not the request) occurs.

ROLLCALL NUMBER

This field is identical to ROLL_CALL in the following tables: ROLLCALL, VOTE and RCTEXT. Combining this field with CONGRESS and CHAMBER will allow the user to match roll call votes and requests.

PRES_POS CHARACTER(1)

Y or N. Was a Yes or No vote equivalent to the President's position in the request?

SUPPORTED CHARACTER(1)

Y or N. Did the President's position prevail on the vote?

VOTETYPE NUMBER

Vote classified by the majority required to pass.

1 = Normal vote, regular majority needed to win

2 = Treaty, 2/3 needed

3 = Cloture (Senate), supermajority needed

4 = Suspend rules (House), 2/3 needed

5 = Other, supermajority needed

6 = Veto override, 2/3 needed.

Note that veto override votes do not appear often in this file because the request file does not include vetoes.

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