Philosophy 120 Symbolic Logic Fall 2017 Art 311 11-11:50 MWF
cstl-cla.semo.edu/hhill/pl120† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††† H. Hamner Hill
We are often confronted by others
who tell us what we ought to think or do. Advertisements tell us that we ought to
drink Budweiser or drive a Chevy. Editorials in the newspaper tell us that we
ought to believe that abortion is murder or that apartheid is morally
indefensible. The trouble is that we are confronted with other advertisements
or editorials telling us that we ought to do different things (drink Stroh's)
or believe different things (that apartheid is the best workable system for
Logic allows one to analyze arguments so as to separate the bad ones (those that reasonable people ought to reject) from the good ones (those that reasonable people ought to accept). Good arguments have a special property called validity. This course teaches students to identify arguments and the parts of arguments (premises and the conclusion). Students learn several ways of testing arguments for validity. This course also examines the applicability of symbolic logic to legal reasoning.
Student Learning Outcomes
A. Students will define fundamental concepts in symbolic logic (e.g., validity).
B. Students will evaluate arguments with truth tables and proof construction techniques.
C. Students will transform English sentences and arguments into proper symbolic notation.
1) master the vocabulary of logic,
2) master fundamental methods and principles of logic,
3) be able to explain important concepts in logic (e.g. validity),
4) improve their communication skills (both interpretive and productive)
5) be able to translate English arguments into proper symbolic notation,
6) be able to test properly symbolized arguments for validity, and
7) be able evaluate samples of reasoning using the methods and techniques of logic.
There will be three (3) examinations, ten (10) homework assignments, and a cumulative final examination. Homework assignments will count for 35% of the final grade; the three exams, 45%; the final exam, 20%. However, completion of each of the assignments is a necessary condition for receiving a passing grade.
The grading scale for the assignments and the course is:
90 and above A
59 and below F
Integrity and Plagiarism
Academic integrity is one of the core values of a University. Integrity involves strict compliance with a set of values, and the values most essential to an academic community are honesty, trust, and respect. Academic integrity is expected not only in formal coursework situations, but in all University relationships and interactions connected to the educational process, including the use of University resources. Instances of academic dishonesty will not be tolerated and they will be punished severely. The range of punishments the University may impose go from redoing an assignment with a penalty through failure for the class, up to expulsion from the university. It is my policy any intentional of academic dishonesty results in a zero for the assignment and the assignment will not be treated as having been completed. There will be no opportunity to redo work which is the product of intentional academic dishonesty. Unintentional and negligent acts of academic dishonesty will be punished according to the severity of the offense and usually there will be an option to redo the assignment with some grade reduction.
Plagiarism is an offense against academic integrity. It is a combination of theft and fraud. The course web page has a detailed definition of what plagiarism is. Plagiarism will not be tolerated, it is a very serious academic offense. If you are not sure about what plagiarism is, find out. And DONíT DO IT!
Other offenses against academic
integrity (cheating, collaboration on individual assignments, use of crib
notes, etc.) will be punished similarly.
See http://www.semo.edu/faculty handbook/ and Student Code of Conduct for details.
Regular attendance and class participation are expected. Be prepared to be called upon in class. NOTE: Exam dates and due dates are listed below and late work (particularly case studies) will be accepted only in extraordinary circumstances. See Southeast Attendance Policy
Turn off your cell phones while the class is in session. If you forget to turn off the cell phone prior to the beginning of class and it rings, turn it off immediately and do not answer the call. Do not send text messages during class, do not read text messages during class..
Audio and video recordings, and still photography, are expressly prohibited without express written consent of the instructor.
The Drop Deadline for this course is listed below under Important Dates. If you feel that you need to drop the course, make that decision and act upon it prior to the official drop deadline. As a general rule I will not sign late drop cards.
Make-Up Exams, Late Work and Extra Credit
Make-up exams generally will not be scheduled, and late work will not be accepted, unless, A) you have a very good excuse for the work being late (e.g. illness), or B) prior arrangements have been made with me. Challenging extra credit questions are included on most exams, but that is the only opportunity for extra credit.
Questions, Comments or requests regarding this course or program should be taken to your instructor. Unanswered questions or unresolved issues involving this class may be taken to Dean Frank Barrios, College of Liberal Arts.
Notice to Students with Disabilities
Anyone with a disability that requires special assistance or creates special needs should contact me in order to make appropriate accommodations. No one is required to disclose a disability, but there is no way that I can make special arrangements or modifications to the course unless I know about those disabilities. I can also assist those of you who may need help in securing assistance and resources from the university. Information concerning services available for persons with physical disabilities is available at http://www.semo.edu/ds and information concerning services for persons with learning disabilities is available at http://www.semo.edu/academic-support-centers/lap/index.html.
All students are expected to conform to the University's official statement on civility. Students are expected to comply with the expectations for civility, respect, and academic honesty as described in the current Southeast Missouri State University Statement of Student Rights and Code of Student Conduct and Dr. Hill's statement on Civility and Harassment.
The Power of Logic, 5th edition, by F. Howard-Snyder, D. Howard-Snyder, & R Wasserman, McGraw-Hill, 2012.
Start of Class
Third Exam (Wednesday)
Office: Carnahan Hall, 211BB
Office Hours: MWF , or by appointment
Symbolic Logic I Topical Outline GO TO Presentations
Subject Covered in Time frame
1. Logic and Argument Chapter 1 Unit 1
a. Scope of logic
b. Nature of argument
c. Sentences and statements
2. Sentential (Propositional) Logic Chapters 7 and 8 Units 2-9
a. Logical Connectives (and, or, not, if, if and only if)
b. Truth Functions and Substitution Instances
c. Translation from English into symbols
d. Truth tables
e. Logical Equivalence
f. Logical Inference
g. Deductions, Proofs and Validity
h. Constructing Deductions and Proofs
i. Conditional Proof
j. Indirect Proof (Reductio Ad Absurdum)
k. Testing for validity
3. Categorical (Syllogistic) Logic Chapters 5 &† 6 Unit 10
† a. Categorical Propositions
b. Venn Diagrams
c. Categorical Syllogisms
d. Venn diagram tests for validity
e. Rules for syllogistic validity
4. Predicate Logic Chapters 9 & 10 Units 11-13
a. Predicates and Variables
b. Propositional functions
d. Translating quantified sentences
e. Interpreting quantifed formulas
f. satisfying interpretations
g. falsifying interpretations
h. Advanced translation
5. Logic and Judicial Reasoning handout Units 14 & 15
a. Logical validity and legal validity
b. Models of legal systems and legal reasoning
c. The rule of law model and symbolic logic
d. Mechanical jurisprudence
e. Challenges to the mechanical model