Symbolizing Arguments
Symbolize each of the following arguments using the dictionary suggested, then check your answers.
If the supply of silver remains constant and the use of silver increases then the price of silver rises. If an increase in the use of silver implies that the price of silver rises then there will be a windfall for speculators. The supply of silver remains constant. Therefore there will be a windfall for speculators. (S,U,P,W)
Either Adams is elected chairman or both Brown and Clark are elected to the board. If either Adams is elected chairman or Brown is elected to the board then Davis will lodge a protest. Therefore either Clark is elected to the board or Davis will lodge a protest. (A,B,C,D)
If he uses good bait then if the fish are biting then he catches the legal limit. He uses good bait but he does not catch the legal limit. Therefore the fish are not biting. (G,B,C)
If the Dodgers win the pennant then they will win the Series. Therefore if the Dodgers win the pennant then if they continue to hit then they will win the Series. (P,S,H)
If he attracts the farm vote then he will carry the rural areas, and if he attracts the labor vote then he will carry the urban centers. If he carries both the urban centers and the rural areas then he is certain to be elected. He is not certain to be elected. Therefore either he does not attract the farm vote or he does not attract the labor vote. (F,R,L,U,C)
Either Argentina does not join the alliance or Brazil boycotts it, but if Argentina joins the alliance then Chile boycotts it. If Brazil boycotts the alliance then if Chile boycotts it then Ecuador will boycott it. Therefore if Argentina joins the alliance then Ecuador will boycott it. (A,B,C,E)
If Argentina joins the alliance then both Brazil and Chile will boycott it. If either Brazil or Chile boycotts the alliance then the alliance will be ineffective. Therefore if Argentina joins the alliance then the alliance will be ineffective. (A,B,C,I)
If you enroll in the course and study hard then you will pass, but if you enroll in the course and do not study hard then you will not pass. Therefore if you enroll in the course then either you study hard and pass or you do not study hard and do not pass. (E,S,P)
If Argentina joins the alliance then either Brazil or Chile will boycott it. If Brazil boycotts the alliance then Chile will boycott it also. Therefore if Argentina joins the alliance then Chile will boycott it. (A,B,C)
If either Argentina or Brazil joins the alliance then both Chile and Ecuador will boycott it. Therefore if Argentina joins the alliance then Chile will boycott it. (A,B,C,E)
If prices fall or wages rise then both retail sales and advertising activities increase. If retail sales increase then jobbers make more money, but jobbers do not make more money. Therefore prices do not fall. (P,W,R,A,J)
If he enters the primary then if he campaigns vigorously then he wins the nomination. If he wins the nomination and receives the support of the party regulars then he will be elected. If he takes the party platform seriously then he will receive the support of the party regulars but will not be elected. Therefore if he enters the primary then if he campaigns vigorously then he does not take the party platform seriously. (P,C,N,R,E,T)
Either the tariff is lowered, or imports continue to decrease and our own industries prosper. If the tariff is lowered then our own industries prosper. Therefore our own industries prosper. (T,I,O)
Either he has his old car repaired or he buys a new car. If he has his old car repaired then he will owe a lot of money to the garage. If he owes a lot of money to the garage then he will not soon be out of debt. If he buys a new car then he must borrow money from the bank, and if he must borrow money from the bank then he will not soon be out of debt. Either he will soon be out of debt or his creditors will force him into bankruptcy. Therefore his creditors will force him into bankruptcy. (R,N,G,S,B,C)
If he goes on a picnic then he wears sport clothes. If he wears sport clothes then he does not attend both the banquet and the dance. If he does not attend the banquet then he still has his ticket, but he does not still have his ticket. He does attend the dance. Therefore he does not go on a picnic. (P,S,B,D,T)
If he studies the sciences then he prepares to earn a good living, and if he studies the humanities then he prepares to live a good life. If he prepares to earn a good living or he prepares to live a good life then his college years are well spent. But his college years are not well spent. Therefore he does not study either the sciences or the humanities. (S,E,H,L,C)
If you plant tulips then your garden will bloom early, and if you plant asters then your garden will bloom late. So if you plant both tulips and asters then your garden will bloom both early and late. (T,E,A,L)
If we go to Europe then we tour Scandinavia. If we go to Europe then if we tour Scandinavia then we visit Norway. If we tour Scandinavia then if we visit Norway then we will take a trip on a fiord. Therefore if we go to Europe then we will take a trip on a fiord. (E,S,N,F)
If Argentina joins the alliance then either Brazil or Chile boycotts it. If Ecuador joins the alliance then either Chile or Peru boycotts it. Chile does not boycott it. Therefore if neither Brazil nor Peru boycotts it then neither Argentina nor Ecuador joins the alliance. (A,B,C,E,P)
If either Argentina or Brazil joins the alliance then if either Chile or Ecuador boycotts it then although Peru does not boycott it Venezuela boycotts it. If either Peru or Nicaragua does not boycott it then Uruguay will join the alliance. Therefore if Argentina joins the alliance then if Chile boycotts it then Uruguay will join the alliance. (A,B,C,E,P,V,N,U)