Solutions to Argument Symbolization Exercises

Problem 1.

1. (S U) P
2. (U P) W
3. S
/ W


Problem 2
1. A (B C)
2. (A B) D

/ C D


Problem 3
1. G (B C)
2. G ~C

/ ~B


Problem 4
1. P S
/ P (H S)


Problem 5
1. (F R) (L U)
2. (U R) C
3. ~C


/ ~F ~L


Problem 6
1. (~A B) (A C)
2. B (C E)

/ A E


Problem 7
1. A (B C)
2. (B C) I

/ A I


Problem 8
1. [(E S) P] [(E ~S) ~P]
/ E [(S P) (~S ~P)]


Problem 9
1. A (B C)
2. B C

/ A C


Problem 10
1. (A B) (C E)
/ A C


Problem 11
1. (P W) (R A)
2. (R J) ~J

/ ~P


Problem 12
1. P (C N)
2. (N R) E
3. T (R ~E)


/ P (C ~T)

Problem 13
1. T (I O)
2. T O

/ O
The argument is also valid if step 1 is translated, "(T I) O."

Problem 14
1. R N
2. R G
3. G ~S
4. (N B) (B ~S)
5. S C




/ C

Problem 15
1. P S
2. S ~(B D)
3. (~B T) ~T
4. D



/ ~P


Problem 16
1. (S E) (H L)
2. (E L) C
3. ~C


/ ~(S H)

Problem 17
1. (T E) (A L)
/ (T A) (E L)

Problem 18
1. E S
2. E (S N)
3. S (N F)


/ E F


Problem 19
1. A (B C)
2. E (C P)
3. ~C


/ ~(B P) ~(A E)


Problem 20
1. (A B) [(C E) (~P V)]
2. (~P ~N) U

/ A (C U)