1. (x)(Sx Rx)

2. (x)(Sx · ~Px)

3. (x)(Cx · Px)

4. (x)(Ex Sx)

5. (x)(Sx Ex)

Compare the answers to 4 and 5; note how the 'all' and 'only' propositions are the converse of one another.

6. (x)(Vx Px)

• If you wrote (x)(Px Vx), then you'd be saying that all (not only) property owners may vote.
7. (x)(Ux Sx)

8. (x)(Ux Ex)

9. (x)(Gx ~Ax)

• The speaker of this proverb undoubtedly meant that we should not be misled by glitter to think that we have found gold. This truth requires a 'not all' rather than an 'all not', and should be translated ~(x)(Gx Ax) or (x)(Gx · ~Ax).
10. (x)(Dx Bx)

11. (x)(Vx · ~Sx)

12. (x)(Vx ~Sx), or ~(x)(Vx · Sx)

13. (x)(Hx ~Ex)

14. (x)(Sx · Ix · Hx)

15. (x)[Cx (~Wx Sx)]

16. (x)[Mx · (Dx Ex)]

• We avoid (x)[(Mx · Dx) Ex] because it is an existentially quantified conditional. It is equivalent to (x)[~(Mx · Dx) Ex] which asserts that there is something that is either not a dangerous medicine (like my chalk) or that is taken in excessive amounts (like logic courses).
17. (x)[(Fx Vx) (Wx · Dx)]

• Note how the "and" between fruits and vegetables is translated as a disjunction.
18. (x)[Ex (~Mx ~Lx Fx)]

19. (x)[Px [Gx « (Wx · Ex)]]

20. (x)[(Ix · Ux) (Px Fx)]

21. (x)(Ax · Fx · ~Tx)

22. (x)[Gx [(Wx · Ex) Hx]

• This is equivalent to (x)[(Gx · Wx · Ex) Hx] by exportation.
23. (x)(Px · Tx · ~Hx)

24. (x)[(Ax · Ox) (Dx ~Rx)]

• This is equivalent to (x)[(Ax · Ox · Dx) ~Rx] by exportation.
• It is not equivalent to (x)~[(Ax · Ox · Dx) Rx].